Chapter Sixteen Formulae for Dryness
Formulae for dryness are mainly cnniposed of moistening herhs which have effects of dispersing dryness evil or nourishing yin to moisten dryness. They are all used to treat the dry syndromes.
The dry syndromes can he dividcd into exogenous dry syndrome and endogennos dry syndromo. Thc cxogenoos dry syndrome is doe to exogenous attack of dryness-evil in autumn. Dryness-evil is one of the six elimantie evils and it pertains to yin evil whose nature is secondary cold evil. It is easy for the dryness to injure the lung-fluid. But there is difference between coldness and.warmth in aotomo, there is also difference between the onset of cool dryoess and warm-dryness. The endogenous dry syndrome is eaosed by insufficiency of the visceral fluid. For example, over sweating or purgation, over sexual intercoorse, or taking too much poogent food, all can injure the genuine yin so as to lead to the dry syndrome. From the location of disease it can be divided into upper dryness, middle dryness and lower dryness.
The dry syndromes shoold be treated with moistening therapy, in which, the exogenous dry syndromc shoold be treated by therapy of dispersing dryness while the endogenoos dry syndrome shoold be treated by therapy of moistening dryness.
Because of the interrelationship between the inside and outside of the homan body and among various viscera, the occurrence of dry syndromes is osoally eom plieated in clinic. For instance, at the beginning of warm-dryness syodroome, there are not only the external symptoms soeh as fever, slight aversion to wind or cold, but olso the internal dry symptoms such as dry and sore throat, coogh withoot sputum. so therapies of dispersing dryness and moistening the lung-dryness should he oded together in treatment. For another example, the upper dry syndrome marked by dry amid sore throat, coogh without sputum may related to flam ing op of the deficient fire due to insufficiency of the kidney-yin, so the therapy of moistening the long cod kidoey shoold be accompanied in elioic treatment. In a word, therepeotie methods should be changed flexibly according to the variations of disease conditions.
Herbs coniposiog the formulae for dryness are osoally greasy which may as
sist dampness or hinder the flaw of qi, so they should be prohibited for constitutional dampness. It should also be cautious to use them for the eases of spleen deficiency with louse stool or of exuberant phlegm. Herbs with pungeot and arornot ic flavors or bitter flavor and cold nature are nut suitable for the dry syndromes because they can consume qi and injure yin.
Section 1 Formulae for Dispersing Exogenous Dryness
Formulae for dispersing exogenous dryness are suituhle to syndromes due to exogenous attack of cool-dryness or warm-dryness. The cool dryness, actually, re fers to the dryness-evil accompanied by wind and cold in the late autumn. It can lead to failure of the lung-qi in dispersing which is characterized by symptoms of cough, stuffy nose, headache, aversion to cold, dryness of throat and should he treated with therapy of dispersing the lung-dryness. The commonly used herbs ore perilla leaf, prepared soybean, Chinese onion stalk, and so on. the warm-dryness refers to the dryness evil accompanied by warm and heot in the early autumn. It can injure the lung-fluid and result in symptoms of fever, headache, cough without sputum, or asthma, vexation, thirst. It shunld he treated with therapy of clearing away and moistening the lung dryness. The commonly used herbs crc mulberry leaf, bitter apricot kernel, forsythia fruit, peppermint a.nd so on.
If the cnn1 dryness impairs the lung with symptoms of cough, bitter apricot kernel and peueedanum root are usually combined to disperse the lung for stop ping cough; if the body fluid is retained as phlegm due to the impairment of dry ness evil on the lung, then tangerine peel, pinellia tuber sod plstyeodon root should be used to regulate qi and resolve phlegni;if the dry heat making the lung- fluid into phlegm marked hy symptons of cough without or with less sputum, then fritillory bulb, loquat leof, pear peel and peueedannm root should be used to moisten the lung and resolve phlegm; if the dryness-evil injures the body fluid with symptnns of vexation and thirst, triehosanthes root, glehnia root and fragrant so loioonsael rhizome should be used to promote generation of the body fluid for quenching thirst; if the warm—dryness is transforiried into host , then gypsum, snemarrhena rhizome, espejasmine fruit and seutellaris root should be used to clear away heat and fire. The representative forniulse are Apricot and Perills Powder, Mulberry and Apricot Decoctinn, and Dryness Clearing and Lung-Rescuing Deenetion.
Apricot and Perilla Powder
xIng Sd san
SOURCE:Dilferentiation on Warm Diseases Item by Item
Bitter apricot kernel
(The dosage is not recorded originally)
DIRECTIONS:Decoct the above herbs in water for oral administrstion.
EFFECTS: Dispelling the cool-dryness and dispersing the long to resolve phlegm.
INDICATIONS: Exogenous attack of the cool dryness manifested by slight headsche, aversion to cold without sweating, cough with thin spotom, stuffy nose and pharynx, white coating and tent pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: It is a representative formula for treating the cool dryness syndrome. Being bitter flavor, warm and moistening natures, bitter apricot kernel can disperse the lung to stop cough and to resolve phlegm. Being pungent flavor and warm nature, perilla loaf can indoce perspiration slightly so as to dispel the cool dryness form the exterior. They act as the main herbs. As the assistant herbs, platycodon root and bitter orange help hitter apricot kernel disperse the long to stop coogh; peocedaoom root can dispel wind and lower qi to help perilla leaf expel evil from the exterior. Pinellia tuber, tangerine peel and po na, as the adjovant herbs, regulate qi and strengthen the spleen for resolving phlegm. As the dispatcher herbs, fresh ginger and Chinese date can harmonize the nutrient and defensive qi as well as harmonizing all the components.
This formula is usually applied to chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and pulmonary emphysema characterized by cough pertaining to injory of the lung doe to
the cool-dryness with retention of phlegm dampness.
Mulberry and Apricot Decoction
sang xIng tJng
SOURCE: Differentiation on Warm Diseases item by Item
Molberry leaf 3g
Bitter apricot kernel 4. 5g
Clehnie root 6g
Fritillary bulb 3g
Prepared soybean 3g
Capejasmine fruit 3g
Pear peel 3g
DIRECTIONS:Deeoet the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECT:Dispeiling the warm dryness.
INDICATIONS: Exogenous attack of the warm-dryness. The evil stays in the lung and the defensive phase marked by slight fever, cough without sputum, dry throat with thirst, rapid and large pulse on the right hand.
ANALYSTS OF FORMULA: This is a representative formula for treating cough pertaining to the lung-dryness due to exogenous attack of the warm-dryness. Mulberry leaf can dispel the dry heat; hitter apricot kernel can dispetse the long with its bitter and pungent flavors and warm and moistening natures. They both act as the main herbs. Prepared soybean assists mulberry leaf in relieving the exterior; glehnia root and pear peel moisten the lung and promote generation of the body fluid. They act as the assistant herbs, As the adjuvant and dispatcher herbs, eapejasmine fruit clears away the lung heat; fritillary bulb resolves phlegm for stopping cough.
This formula is for the light attack evil and the mild case of the lung disorders.The decoeting time should not he ton long.
Dryness-Clearing and Lung-Rescuing Decoction
qing zdo jià fel tang
SOURCE:Prineiples for Medical Professions
Mulberry leaf 9g
Gypsum 7. 5g
Hemp seed 3g
Donkey hide gelatin 2. 4g
Ophiopogon root 3. 6g
Bitter apricot kernel 2g
Loquat leaf 3g
DIRECTIONS: Dccoct the ahove herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Clearing away dryness and moistening the lung.
INDiCATIONS: injury uf the lung due to the warm-dryness manifested by headachc,fcvcr, cough withuut expectoration, asthma, dry throat and nose, stuffy chest and hypochondriac pain, vexation, thirst, dry tongue without coating, feeble, large and rapid pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common formula for treating the dr heat injuring the lung. Mulberry leaf, as the main herb, can dispel the lung-dryness. Gypsum and ophiopogon root, as the assistant herbs, can not only clear away heat from the Lung Meridian but also moisten the lung. Thus, clearing is contained in dispelling while moistening is contained in clearing. All the others are the adjuvant herbs. Bitter apricut kernel aad loquat leaf are to soothe the lung-qi;dunkey hide gelatin and hemp seed to moisten the lung and to nourish yin; ginseng and licorice to reinforce qi and to harmonize the middle. If sputum is alnindant and it is hard to be expectural ad. then fritillary bulb and trichasanthes fruit should be added to moisten the lung and resolve the phlegm.
Both this formula and Mulberry and Apricot dacuction are used to treat the warn-dryness injuring the lung. But there is difference between them. The dry- heat in syndrome pertaining to Mulberry and Apricot Decoction is lighter, and symptoms are characterized by slight fever and cough; while the dry-heat in syndrome pertaining to Dryness-Clearing and Lung Rescuing Decoction is heavier, and symptoms are markcd by higher fever, frequent cough, or asthma, distending pain of chest and hypochundriurn, vexation, thirst, dry and sore throat. So, Mulberry and Apricot Dccuctinn is mainly to dispel the lung-dryness and moisten the lung; while Dryness-Clearing and Lung Rescuing Dccoction stresses on huth dis persing the lung and nourishing yin.
Section 2 Formulae for Nourishing Yin to Moisten Dryness
Fnrmulae far nourishing yin to mnisten dryness arc suitable to endoganuus
dry syndromes due to insofficiency of the visceral fluid. Owing to the different lo eations of diseascs and different symptoms tile therapies for trcating the endogenous dry syndromes are different. For example, the upper dryness is usually at trihuted to the lung with symptoms of cough with less sputum, dry ihroat, hemoptysis, or asthma, so it should he treated with rherapy of clearing away dryness and moistening the lung. The commonly used herbs are lily bulb, asparagus root, upiopogon root, glehnia root and so on. The middle dryness is often related to the stomach with symptoms of feverish thin, hungry, epigastric upset, dry throat, thirst or cough, so it should be treated with therapy of promoting gegeration of the stomach fluid. The commonly used herbs are fragrant solomonsael rhizome, dendrobium stem, ophiopogon root and so on. The lower dryness is usually related to the kidney with symptoms of consumptive thirst, dry throat, flushing, vexation or constipation due to exhaustion of the body fluid, so it should be treated by nourishing the kidney yin. The cumrnanly used herbs are rehmannia root, prepared rebmannia root, scrophularia root and su on.
If the dryness—evil damages qi marked by shortness of breath and lassitude, pilase asiahell root and licorice should be used to tonify the middle qi. If the endogenous dryness is complicated by exogenous attack, then peppermint, sretium fruit and forsythia fruit can be used to dispel the exterior evils. The representative formulae are Yin Nourishing and Lung-Clearing Deeoetiun, Lily Metal Consolidating Decoctian, Ophiupogun Deeoetion and su on.
Yin-Nourishing and Lung-Clearing Decoction
yang ‘yin qing fel tang
SOURCE: “Jade Key to the Secluded Chamber”
Rehniannis root 6g
Ophiopugun root 6g
Seruphularia root Sg
Fritillary bulb 2g
Moutan hark 2g
White peony rout 2g
DIRECTIONS:Deeoct the above herbs in water fur oral administration.
EFFECTS:Nourishiugy yin and clearing the lung.
INDICATIONS:Diphthcria marked by false membrane in the thraat which si not easy ta be srubbed off sore throat. At the begioniog, there are such symptoms as fever or absence of fever, dry nose and lips, cough or absence of cough, difficult breath with husky sound.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: It is a common formula for treating diphtheria. Rehmannia root can noorish yin and clear away heat; scropholaria root can clear the lung and eliminate poison. They act as the main herbs. As the assistant herbs, ophiopogon root is to nourish yin and to clear the long;white peony root to nourish blood jor gentling theliver in order to prevent from injury of the long doe to the liver fire;mootan bark to cool blood and to dissipate stasis and resolve swell ing. Fritillary bulb can moisten the lung to resolve phlegm; peppermint can disperse the lung and soothe the throat. They arc the adjuvant herbs. Licorice, as the dispatcher, purge fire and poison as well as harmonizing all the components.
This formula can he used, by modifications, to treat tonsillitis, laryngopharyngitis and nasopharyngeal carcinoma pertaining to yin deficiency.
Lily Metal-Consolidating Decoction
Mi he gà fin tang
SOURCE: Collection of Formolae with Notes
Rebmannia root fig
Prepared rehmannia root 9g
Ophiopogon root 5g
Lily hull) 3g
White peony root 3g
Chinese angelica root Sg
Fritillary bulb 3g
Scropholaria root 2g
Platycodon root 2g
DIRECTIONS:Ltecoct the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Noorishing yin and clearing away heat, moistening the lung and resolving phlegm.
INDICATIONS: Yin mieliciency of both ihe long and kidney manifested by cough withbloody sputum, dry and sore throat, feverish sensation in the palms and soles, hectic fever with night sweating, red tongue with less coating, thread
ahd rapid pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: It is a common formula for treating cough due to yin deficiency of both the lung and kidney. As the main herbs, lily bulb, rehmannia root and prepared rehmanuia root can nourish horh the lung aud kidney yin. Ophiopogon root help lily bulb moisten the lung to stop eough;seropholaria root help rebmannia root and prepared rehmannia root nourish yin and clear away heat. They act as the assistant herbs. As the adjuvant herbs, Chinese angelica root and white peony root are to replenish blood for harmonizing yin; fritillary bulb and platycodon rout to clear the lung and to resolve phlegm for stopping cough. Lico rice acts as the dispatcher herb to harmonize all the components as well as to soothe throat by combination with platycodon root.
This formula can he used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchitis, bron chiectasis and pharyngitis pertaining to yin deficiency of both the lung and kidney.
mâi men doug tOng
SOURCE:Syuopsis of the Golden Chamber
Ophiopogon root 35g
Pinellia tuber 5g
Round—grain rice 3g
Chinese date 3 pes.
DIRECTIONS:Decoct the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Nourishing the lung and stomach, lowering the rebellious qi and harmonizing the middle.
(1) Insufficiency of the lung yin marked by cough with sticky phlegm, or frothy sputum, dry mouth and throat, feverish sensation of the palms and soles, red tongue with less coating, feeble and rapid poise.
(2) Insufficiency of the stoniach yin marked by vomiting, thirst, dryness of throat, red tongue with less coating, feeble and rapid pulae.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: it is a key formula for treating the weak long doe to yin deficiency. Being sweet flavor and cold nature, ophiopagon root acts as the main herb to nourish the lung and stomach-yin as well as clearing away the def i329
cient heat. As the assistant herb, pinellia tuber can lower the rebellious qi and resolve phiegni. Though pinellia tuber has the property of dryness, its dryoess prop erty is decreased when in combination with lorge dosoge of ophiopogon root ond it still is good at lowering the rebellious qi of the lung and stomaeh.Ginseng,as the adj ovont herb, can tonify the middle qi as well as promoting generation of the body fluid by combination with ophiopogon root. Round-grain rice, Chinese date and licorice act as the dispatcher herbs to reinforce the spleen and stomach which then can transport the body fluid to the lung. This formula is effective not only to the ease with symptom of spitting frothy sputum due to deficient heat in the lung but also to the ease with symptom of vomiting due to insufficiency of the stomach yin.
yü ye tang
SOURCE: Integration of Chinses and Western Medicine
Chinese yam 30g
Astragalus root 15g
Anemarrhena rhizome l5g
Chicken’s eizzard skin 6g
Pueraria root 4. Fig
Sehisandre fruit 9g
Trichosanthes root 9g
DIRECTIONS:Deeoet the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Reinforcing qi to promote generation of the body fluid, moistening dryness to relieve thirst
INDICATIONS: Consumptive thirst related to the kidney deficiency and the stomach-dryness due to failure of qi in vaporizing the body fluid manifested by thirst with desire for drind, frequent urination, or turbid urine, lassitude and shortness of breath. feeble end thread pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA:This is a eummun furmula fur treating consumptive-thirst syndrome related to the kidney deficiency and the stomach-dryness. Chinese yam can reinforce the spleen and consolidate the kidney to relieve the frequent urination as well as moistenry the lung end promote generation of the body fluid to quench thirst; astregalus root can reinforce the spleen qi to restore its function of dispersing essence into the lung. They both act as the main herbs.
Anemarrliena rhizome and triebosantbes ‘root, as the assistant herbs, naurish yin and moisten dryness far quenching thirst. As the adjovant herbs, chicken’s cizzard skin is ta strengthen function af the spleen in tranporting and transforming so as ta promote generation uf the body fluid; poeraria runt tu lift the lucid yang from the spleen fur distributing the body fluid to viseera;sehisandra fruit to astringe yin, to promote generation of the body fluid and consolidate the kidney essence.
Body Fluid4nercasing Decoction
zPng ye tang
SOURCE:Differentiation on Warm Diseases item by Item
Scrophulariu root 30g
Ophiopogon root 24g
Rehmannia root 24g
DIRECTIONS:Deeoet the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Nourishing yin to clear away heat, moistening dryness to relieve constipation.
IND1CATIONS:Warm diseases pertaining to Yongming Meridian marked by constipation due to insufficiency of the body fluid, or two or three day later after being purged, reoccurrence of constipation, deep and feeble pulse.
ANALYSiS OF FORMULA: It is o representative formula for irareasing the body fluid and moistening dryness to relieve constipation. Being salt flavor and cold nature, serophularia root acts as the main herb to moisten purgation. Being sweet flavor and cold nature, ophiopogon root eon moisten dryness;while reliman nia root eon nourish yin. They act as the assistant herbs. The main purpose of this formula is to increase the body fluid but not for purging. So large dosage is needed for relieving constipation. If constipation is not relieved yet after taking the deeoetion, then taking it again or adding rhubarb and mirebilite in the formole.
It is set up for the ease of insufficiency of the body floid withoot severe dry constipation. So it is not advisable to apply it to ease of insufficiency of the body fluid with severe dry constipation.
There are totally 8 formulae for dryness. Based on their different effects, they can be divided into formulae for dispersing exogenous dryness and formulae for
nourishing yin to moisten dryness.
1 . Formulae for dispersing exogenous dryness
Apricot and Perilla Powder is a common formula for the cool-dryness, which takes perilla leaf (to expel the exterior cold) and hitter apricot kernel (to nuurish the lung for relieving asthma) as the main herhs. While tangerine peel and pinellia tuber strengthen the spleen and resolve phlegm; platycodon root and hitter orange disperse and lower qi. So it is soitahle to symptoms of aversion to cold, absence of sweating, cough with frothy sputum, headache and stuffy nose. Both Moiherry ond Apricot Decoction and Dryness Clearing and Long-Rescuing Decoction can dispel the warm-dryness and are used to treat syndrome of long injury doe to the warmdryness. The farmer has a weaker power of clearing away heat, so it is suitable tn the light case of long injury doe to the warm dryness marked by slight fever, cough with less sputum; the latter has the powerful effects of both clearing away heat and nourishing yin, so it is soitablc to the heavy case of long injury doe to the warm dryness characterized by fever, thirst, coogh and asibma, distending pain of chest and hypochondriom.
2. Formulae for nonrishing yin ot moisten dryness
Both Yin Noorishing and Long Clearing Deenetion and Lily mctal-Consolida ting Decoction can nourish the long and the kidney. The former can also dispel cxogennos evil, so it is the effective formula for diphtheria and for sore throat doe to yin deficiency, while the latter can also resolve phlegm and stop bleeding, so it is osed to treat asthma with bloody spotom and dry sore throat. Ophiopogon Decac don is mainly used to treat the long weakness, in which, aphiopagon root, with heavy dosage and as the main herb, is to treat the “root”by nourishing the stom ach-floid, and pinellia tuber can lower the rebellious qi of the long and swmach as well as preventing from too greasy of nphiopogon root. The effects of Yoye Decoc tinn are to reinforce qi and to promote generation of the body floid for moistening dryness and relieving thirst, it is special for Irealing the consumptive—thirst related in the kidney deficiency and the stomach-dryness due to failore of qi in vaporizing the body fluid. Body Fluid Increasing Decnctinn is used to moisten dryness and to clear away hear for relieving constipation, so it is suitable to constipation doe to insufficiency of the body fluid in warni diseases pertaining to the Yangming Meridian.