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Chapter Seven Tonic Formulae

This term means that the formula is mainly composed of the tonifying herbs for deficiency syndrome through tonifying qi, blood, yin and yang. It belongs to tonifying therapy in eight therapeutic therapies.
Deficiency syndrome mainly points fo insufficiency of genaine-qi, which is from many causative factors. Generally, they can be sorted out into two kinds:
congenital insufficiency and acquired deficiency of nourishment. Genuine (Ji refers to the motive power and material basis of life activities of the human body, which are closely related to qi, blood, yin and yang. Over consumption may lead to van ous deficiency syndromes, such as qi deficiency, blood deficiency, yin deficiency and yong deficiency.
Chapter 20 in the Plain Questions states: “Deficiency syndromes should be treated by tooification. “ Chapter 5 in the same hook states: “The inadequate body should be treated with warm tonification, while insufficiency of the essence should be treated with the tonic of strong flavour. “ In accordance with these prin ciples, deficiency syndrome should he treated with tonifying therapy. Since deficiency syndromes fall into different types called deficiency of qi, deficiency of blood, deficiency of yin and deficiency of yang, tonic formulae tre divided into those formulae which tonify qi, tonify blood, tonify both qi and blood, tonify yin and tonify yang.
Formulae to tonify qi and tonify blood are different hut are closely related. “Qi is the commander of blood, while blood is mother of qi”. They are closely re lated each other. Therefore blood deficiency syndrome complicated by qi deficiency must be treated by tonifying blood and concomitantly tonifying qi. If there is defi ciency of blood without qi deficiency, treatment should be added a small amount of herbs for tonifying qi on the basis of tonifying blood, so as to promoting blood for mation. If syndrome of blood deficiency is caused by heavy bleeding, tonifying qi is necessary to rescue the patient from collapse and promote blood generation. As for syndrome of qi deficiency, herb for tooifying qi is the main part, associating with small amount of herbs for tonifying blood, to prevent impairmant of stomach qi.
The tonification of yin and yang is similar to that of qi and blood mentioned
above. Because yin and yang have their roots in each other, they being the relatiunships uf mutual dependence and transformation, the farmulae ta tunify yin contains the herbs for tanifying yang so that “Yin receives yang to ascend, there wauld be a rich source”; the formulae to tunify yang contains sume herbs for tonifying yin in order to benefit much in rbat “Yang receives support from yin, there would be growth and development endlessly.” These shaw that yin and yung should be taken as an integrated whale when herbs for tonifying yin or herbs for tonifying yang is applied. It should not be stressed on only one side.
(In sum) (To be summed up) ,the qi and blond share the same source, and yin and yang have their ronts’in each nther. No matter what tonifying qi,.nr tanifying blood, or tonifying yin, or tonifying yang is used, only in taking comprehensive consideration can it bring out the best in each other.
In addition, deficiency syndrome is always related to ‘zang viscera and fit- viscera’. Proper formulae must be used according to characteristics of viscera and their relationships. So far as tonifying therapies of five zong-viseera are concerned, ancient doctors especially paid mure attention to tonify the spleen and kidney. The reason is that the spleen is the foundation of acquired constitution and is the source of growth and transformation, while the kidney is the foundation of congenital constitution, containning genuine-yin and genuine-yang, and is the source of life. Therefore, tonifying spleen and kidney is called treating “ rool” which is very important among tonifying therapies.
Tonic formulae are further divided into the invigorating tonification and the general tnnification. Acute syndrome is indicated by invigorating tnnification which has great dose with few herbs and strong effects in rescuing critical sitna tion. The general tnnificatinn is indicated to chronic diseases and can be taken by a period of time. In addition, when tonic formulae are used, it is necessary to add appropriate amount of herbs fur strengthening spleen, harmonizing stomach, regula ting qi and promoting blood circulatinn, sn that one does not forget to eliminate the evil qi and to avoid stickiness of herbs when invigorating the genuine-qi.
It is necessary to point out that real or pseudo-phenomena of deficiency and excess syndrome must be differentiated when applying tnnic fnrmulae. So called “symptoms of deficiency in extreme excess” belongs to pseudo deficiency syn dmome. If erroneous tonification is used, excess syndrome may become worse. Socalled “symptnms of excess in extreme deficiency” is pseudo-excess syndrome, and erroneous purgation may cause worse deficiency syndrome. Deficiency of genuine
qi uncleared evil or deficiency complicated with excess should be treated by both strengthening gennine—qi and eliminating the evil—qi in order to prevenr that ‘invadcrs arc kcpt in thc hoosc doe to closcd doors” happcncd.
Section 1 Formulae for Tonifying Qi
These formulac are used for qi deficicncy syndrome of the spleen and lung. Qi is the nutritive substance to make op the human body, and is also motive power for fonctional octivities of organs and tissues-il is mainly froni external qi inhaled by the lung from the nature, and the essence of drink and food transformed by the spleen. The spleen dominates transportation and transformatinn and is considered to be the foundation of acquired constitotion and the source for growth and trans formation of qi and blood. The long dominates qi and controls respiration and all vessels nieet in the long. Deficiency of spleen qi leads to failore in transporting function, and there may appear poor appetite, loose stools, lassitode, etc. Sinking of the middle qi may caose chronic diarrhea, prolapse of rectum, etc. or visceropto— sis. Deficiency of lung-qi may create shortness of breath, feeble speech,low voice, asthma on exertion, spontaneous sweating, weak pulse, etc. Therapy of tonifying qi is indicated, particolarly, tonifying the spleen and lung. Sweet and wartn property herbs are commonly osed soch as ginseng, pilose asiabell root, gecko, astragalus root and bighead atractylodes rhizome, etc.
If delficiency of spleen qi is accompanied by retention of water aod dampness, in addition to these herbs poria, coix seed and white hyacinth bean for invig orating the spleen and resolving dampness are combined. Aceomolation of damp ness torning into phlegm leads to distention and fullness in the chest, in addition to these herbs tangerine peel, pinellia tober, etc. to regulate qi and resolve phlegm are comlaned. Qi deficiency with sinking syndrome should he added into these herbs cimicifoga rhizome, hopleurum root, and the likes are used concomitantly to replenish qi and raise yang. If syndrome of qi deficiency is accompanied by symp torns of yang deficiency, herbs for warming and elitninating cold should be added, soch as cinnamon bark, and dry ginger, etc. Deficiency syndrome of both qi and yin should be treated by herbs fnr invigorating qi and noorishing yin, soch as oploopogon root, and schisandra froit, etc. If deficiency syndrome is accompanied by stagnation of qi, herbs for regulating qi and harmonizing the stomach shoold he added, such as aucklandia root, amomom fruit, and roond cardamon seed, etc. The repersentative of formolae of tonifying qi are Four Gentlemen Decoction, Powder
of Ginseng, Poria and Bighead Atractylodes, Middle Reinforcing and Qi-Benefiting Decaction, Poise Activating Powder, and Ginseng and Gecko Powder, etc.
Four Gentlemen Decoction
si fUn zi tang
SOURCE: Formolac of Peaceful Benevalent Dispensary
Ginseng 12g
Bighead atractylodes rhizome 9g
Poria 9g
Roasted hcoricc root 6g
DIRECTIONS: Decact all the ingredients in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Replenishing qi to invigorate the spleen.
INDICATIONS: Qi deficiency syndrome of the spleen and stomach with symptoms soeh as yellow complexion, low and weak voice, lassitode of limbs, poor appetite, loose stool, pale tongoe, soft and weak poles.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a basic formols for deficiency of the spleen end stomach. Ginseng with sweet flavor and warm property effects on the spleen and long meridians, invigorating primordial qi and is the principal herb in this formula. Bighead atractylodes rhizome as an assistant herb with sweet and hitter flavor and warm property strengthens the spleen to dry dampness and invigorates the stomach to harmonize the middle. Poria with sweat flavor, excreres damp and strengthens the spleen. it assists highead atraetylodes rhizome in invigorating the spleen function to remove dampness and is an adjuvant herb. Roasted licorice root with sweet flavor and warm property, replenishes qi and is osed as a goidiog herh to harmonize all herbs in the formola.
This formola is indicated to chronic gastritis, gastric and doodenal oleer that are ascribable to qi deficiency of the spleen and stomach.
(1) Marveloos Effect Powdcr(yI gong são)
SOURCE: Pacdiatric Therapeutics.
It is composed of Foor Gentlemen Deeoetion pbs tangerine peel powder 9g. Take 6 grams each time. The powder with fresh ginger 5 pieces and two Chinese dales are decoeted in waler for oral administration. It has effects of strengthening the spleen, replenishing qi and harmonizing the stomach, and is osed for deficiency of the spleen and stomach with symptoms soch as poor appetite, stuffy chest,
vomiting and diarrhea.
(2) Six Gentlemen Decoction aIa jun zi tang)
SOURCFnEffective Formulae for Women.
it is composed of Four Gentlemen Decoction plus tangerine peel 9g and pinel Ha tuber 12g. All the ingredients should he decucted in water for oral administra tion. its effect is to strengthen the spleen and to stop vumiting. It is used for qi deficiency of the spleen and stomach accompauied by symptoms uf phlegm and damp, clinical manifestations are pour appetite, nausea, vomiting, stuffy chest and abdomen, luose stool or cough with profuse, white sputum, etc.
(3) Aucklandia and Amomum Six Gentlemen Decoctian(xiang sM lilt jun zi tang)
SOURCE: Collection of Formulae with Notes.
Nutgrass flatsedge rhiznme(At present, aucklandia rout 6g is commonly used in place of nutgrass flatsedge rhizome) and Amomom fruit fig are added tn six Gentlemen Decoction, it is then called Aocklandia and Amomun Six Gentlemen Decoctian. it is decanted in water for oral administration. Its effects are to strengthen the spleen, harmonize the stomach, regulate qi and alleviate pain. It is applied for qi deficiency of the spleen and stomach due to cold-dampness coagola ting in the middle with symptoms, such as poor appetite, helching, distention of pain of the abdomen, vomiting and diarrhea, etc.
Nate: Four Gentlemen Decoctian is the basic formula to repcnish the spleen and stomach. Formulae mentioned shave stem from it. Combination of Four Gentlemen Decoction and tangerine peel is called Marvelous Effect Powder, which is used most commonly in regolsting qi and invigorating the spleen. When Pinellia tuber is added to it,it is named Six Gentlemen Decoction,which stresses an drying dampness and resolving phlegm. Six Gentlemen Decoction plus aucklandia root and smomom fruit is known as Xiangsha Six Gentlemen Decoction, and the effects of regulating qi and awakening the spleen becomes stranger.
Ginseng, Poria and Bighead Atractylodes Powder
shea flag bdi zhã san
SOURCE: Formolae of Peaceful Benevolent Dispensary
Lotus seed 12g
Cnix seed 12g
Amomom fruit 8g
Platycodon root(stir-baked to deep yellowish) 6g
White hyaciath bean(macerated in ginger juice, skin removed ond stir baked to just dry) 12g
Poria log
Ginseng(stem renioved) l2g
Licorice root 8g
Bighead atractylodes rhizome ldg
Chinese yam 1 5g
DIRECTIONS: All the above herbs can he make into powder, or pills, 6 gram each time is taken with soup of red date or warm boiled water. Or all the above can he deeoeted in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Strengthening the spleen, replenishing qi, excreting dampness and stopping diarrhea.
INDICATIONS: Qi deficiency syndrome of the spleen and stomach complicated with dampness marked by lassitude of limbs, general debility, poor appetite, loose stool, vomiting of diarrhea, epigastrie distention, sallow eampexion, whitish and greasy coating on the tongue, and feeble and moderate pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This formula is Four Gentleman decoetion plus Chinese yam, coix seed, white hyaeiath bean, lotus sees, amamum fruit and platycodon root. Giagseng, bighead atractylodes rhizome and poria as the principal herbs replenish qi and strengthen the spleen. White hyaciath bean eoix seed, Chinese yam and lotus seed assist bighead atraetylodes rhizome in strengthening the spleen, excreting dampness and arresting diarrhea. Amomom fruit with acrid f Ia vor is used to awaken the spleen, regulate qi and harmonize the stomach, so as to avoid stagnation doe to tonifieation. Platyeodon root is a herb for long meridian guiding, and leads the herbs effects upwards. Licorice root replenishes qi and har monizes the middle. They are dispatcher herbs.
This formula and Four Gentlemen Deeoetion can be used ta tanify qi and strengthen the spleen. Howerer, the latter is used to tonify qi as main purpose, the farmer stresses on harmonizing the stomach and oozing out dampness. It is specifically indicated to syadrome of qi deficiency of the spleen and stomach complicated with dampness, hot nowadays, it is oftcn used for dcficieney of lung-qi marked by chronic cough with profuse sputum.
Middle-Reinforcing and Qi-Benefiting Decoction
bà zhOng yl qI tang
SOURCE: Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach
Astragalos root 15g
Roasted licorice root 5g
Ginseng 9g
Chinese angeliea root(haked with wine to dry or dried in the son) 9g
Tangerine peel 6g
Cimicifoga rhizome 3g
Bopleurom root 3g
Bighead atraetylodes rhizome 9g
DIRECTIONS: All herbs can either be decocted in water for oral administration, or groond into powder for making halos, each hams weighs 9 gram, take one bolos for each time with ginger decoction or warm hailed water, 3 times a day.
EFFECTS: Reinforcing the middle, henefiting qi, and elevating yang to raise qi sinking.
INDiCATIONS: Qi deficiency syndrome of the spleen and stomach manifes ted hy fever with perspiration, thirst with desire of warm drink, headache with aversion ta cold, short breath and disinclination to talk, lassitude of the extremi— ties;or loss of appetite, pale complexion, deficient and weak poise, pale tongue with thin whitish coating as well as prolapse of rectom, prolapse of the oteros, gastroptosis, chronic diarrhea caosed by the sinking of the middlc-qi.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a representative formula to invigorate qi and raise yang. It is based on the principles that “The consomptive syndrome shoold he treated with warm herbs” and “Sinking disorders should be treated with herbs for lifting fonctian”. Of all the ingredients, astragalos root with sweet flavor and warm property effects on the spleen and long meridians. It is the principal herb with the effects of reinforcing the middle and replenishing qi, elevating yang to raise qi sinking, linking op the internal and external. Ginseng, bighead ateac tylodes rhizome and roasted licorice root replenish qi and invigorate the spleen to assist the efforts of astragalos root in reinforcing the middle and benefiting qi. They are assistant herbs. Tangerine peel is osed to awake the spleen. harmonize the stomach, and regulate qi mechanism, Chinese angelica root as ad] ovarnt herb noorishes the blood to harmonize the ootrieot qi. Cimicifoga rhizome leads the clear qi of Yangming Meridian opwards, while bopleorom root leads the clear qi of Shaoyang Meridian upwards. They arc used together as dispatcher herbs for dc vating the lucid yang of the spleen ant stomach from the sinking.
This formula belongs to therapy of relieving fever with sweat and warm herbs. it is only indicated to fever due tu qi deficiency. Patients with indigenous heat due to yin deficiency contra-indicated.
Jade Screen Powder
yà ping flag san
SOURCE: Danxi’s Experiential Therapies
Ledebouriella Rout 30g
Astragalus rout 30g
Bighead atractyludes rhizome 6 Pg
DIRECTONS: All herbs are ground into powder, 6’—9 grams powder fur each time, twice a day, or they can be decocted in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Replenishing qi, consolidating the exterior and ceasing sweating.
INDICATIONS: It is used fur syndrome of uneonsulidatiun of the exterior qi manifested by spontaneous perspiration and aversion to cold, pale complexion, pale tongus with whitish coating, floating and soft pulse, and the patient catches frequent wind and enld due to weak constitution.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a representive formula to replenish qi and consolidate the exterior. Astragalus root with sweat flavor and warm property effects un the spleen and lung meridians, it is the principal herb for replenishing qi ta consolidate the exterior. Bighead atractyludes rhizome strengthens and repleni shes qi, consolidates the exterior to cease sweating. It assists astragalus root to strengthen the middle-jiao so thet the source of growth and transformation he comes richet, the exterior qi will be stronger, and the excretion of perspiration ia controlled. Attack of the evil qi is prevented. Ledebouriella root promotes the surface of the body to expel wind. The eumbinatiun of astragalus runt with l.edehou riella rnot has such advantages as consolidating the exterior and preventing from retaining the evil-qi within the body, and expelling the evil qi and avoiding impair ment of the genuine qi It really is a good combination of tunifieatian with diaper siun. Thus, for patient with spontaneous perspiration due to deficiency of the exterior, it can consolidate the exterior tu cease sweating; far patient with frequent eummun euld due to qi deficiency, it can consolidate the exterior—qi and expel the cvi 1-qi.
Both Jade Screen powder and Cassia Twig Decuction can be used fur sponta neous perspiration. The former consolidates the exterior to cease perspiration and
is indicEited to spontaneous perspiration due to unconsolidation of defensive yang, whilst the latter stresses on harmonizing nutrient-qi and defense-qi and is good at relieving exterior syndrome, being applicable for spontaneous perspiration caused by exogenous wind cold.
Pules-Aetivating Powder
sheng mdi san
SUORCE: Differentiation on Indigenous and Exogenous Disease
Ginseng 9g
OPhiopogan root 12g
Schisandra fruit 6g
DIRECTIONS: Deeoet all the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Replenishing qi, promoting generation of body fluid, astringing yin and ceasing sweating.
INDICATIONS: It is used for syndrome of impairment of both qi and body fluid caused by profuse sweating due to summer heat. The clinical manifestations are general debility, shortness of breath, dry throat, thirsty, a feeble and thread pulse, or impairment of the lung due to chronic cough marked by dry cough with little sputum, shortness of breath, spontaneous perspiration, dry mouth and tongue,a feeble and rapid pulse of a feeble and thread pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: Of three herbs in this formula, ginseng as the principal herb tonifies primordial qi, and benefits the lung and promotes the gener atiun of body fluid. Ophiopogan root with sweet flavor and cold property, as assis tant herb for nourishing yin and moistening the lung, clearing the heart and relic ving anxiousness, together with ginseng can promote the generation of qi and body fluid. Schisandra fruit being sour in flavor and warm in property acts on lung and kidney mevidians, has effects on astringing the lung to generate body fluid and cease sweating, by combining with ophiopogan rnot, being known as the combinetion uf sour and sweet producing yin, so it is considered to be an adjnvant herb. The three herbs together have tnnifying, clearing and aslringing effects. They replenish qi, promote the generation of body fluid, astringe yin to cease sweating and an activated pulse is subsquently resulted.
Section 2 Formulae For Tonifying Blood
These formulae are used for syndromes of deficiency of blnod. Blend dnmi158
nates moisture and nourishment. It is one of the basic substances to maintain the life activities. Insufficiency of blood may lead to deficiency syndrome, which is caused mainly by the loss of blood, insufficient generation of blood, or blood sta sis. Becaoes the heart dominates the blood vessels, the liver stores the blood., ond the spleen controls the blood, deficiency syndrome of blood, is closely related to them. Insufficiency of heart-blood may results in malnourished heart spirit, flat blood vessels, manifesting as palpitation, insomnia, pale complexion, pale lips and nails, a thread and asthenic pulse. Deficiency of liver blood brings about malnourishing of the upper part of the body marked by dizziness, vertigo. Insufficiency of the blood sea may give ri,se to scanty menstruation, amenorrhea. In these cases, tonifying blood therapy should be used. The commonly used herbs with sweet in flavor and warm in nature are prepared rchmannia rout, Chinese angelica rout, white peony root, fleece-flower root, and donkey hide gelatin, etc. Since blood originates from the spleen and stomach and is traosformed by qi. Sometimes, the herbs for replenishing qi and generating blood such as ginseng, astragalus rout can be used as principal herbs.
If insufficiency of heart-blood leads to palpitation, insomnia, herbs for nouns hiog blood aod tranquilizing the mind such as wild jujula seed, poria with hostwood, polygala root, aod longao an1 can he added. if syndrome of blood deficiency is complicated by symptoms of qi stagnation and blood stasis, the herbs fur activa ting qi and removing slagoatioo such as Chuanxioog rhizome, red sage root, peach kernel, safflower, cyprus, aucklandia root, etc. can be added to remove stasis. If syodrume of blood deficiency with yin impairment is marked by deficient vexation, and night sweatting, the uphiopogao root, scrophlaria root, etc. can be added to nourish yin and clear heat. If syndrome of blood deficiency is marked by a knot ted and slow regular intermittent pulse, liquorice, cinnamon twig is added to the formula to warm yang and activate pulse. The representative formulae to tonify blood are Four Herbs Decoction, Back to the Spleen Decoctiun, Roasted Licorice Decoction, etc.
Four Herbs Decoction
si Wa tang
SOURCE: Formulae of Peaceful Benevolent Dispensary
Chinese angelica roat(prcparcd by soaking in wine and stir frying) 12g
Chuanxiong rhizome 9g
White peony root l2g
Prepared rehmannia rhizome 12g
DIRECTIONS: Decoct all the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Noorishing and regulating blood
INDICATIONS: it is used for syndrome of hlood deficiency complicated by blood stasis with symptoms soch as palpitation, dizziness, blurring of vision, tinni— tos, pale lips and nails, scanty menstruation amenorrhea for women, pain in th abdomen and around umbilicus, pale tangue, a string taut and thread pulse, or a thread and hesitant pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: It is common formula for tonifying blood. Prepared rehmannia rhizome being sweat in flavur and warm in property acts as a principal herb far tonifying the liver blood and kidney yin. Chinese angelica root is a key herb for regulating menstruation of women, and it has functions of promo ting blood circulation, tunifying blood, and regulating menstruatiun to alleviate pain, being an assistant herb. White peony root is an adjuvant herb to tanify the blood and preserve yin, and to harmonize the nutrient-qi to nourish the liver, or it can assist prepared rehmannia rhizome in regulating and tonifying the liver and kidney. Chuanxiong rhizome being pungent in flavor and warnm in property, is for regulating qi among the herbs for activating the blood, and it is used to improve blood circulation and relieve stagnation to relieve pain. When it is combined with white peony root, tonifying the blood will not have side effects of stagnation, so is called dispatcher herb. The four ingredienis in combination may have such advantages as tonification without stick, warm without drying, purgation within tunifi cation thereby the formula is an example of harmonization.
This formula can be modified flexibly in clinical practice. If it is used fur regulating menstruation, (‘hinese angelica runt should he principal herb. if it is used for activating blood flow and removing blad stasis, combination of Chinese angel ica root and chuanxinng rhizome are principal herbs, and red peony rant is used to replace white penny root. If the spleen and stnmnecb are iii deficiency and failure of transportation and transformation with symptom of poor appetite, prepared reh mannia rhizome can be used with care.
(1) Shengyu Decoctionhh?ag ymi Lang)
SOURCE: The Colden Mirror of Medicine
This formula is composed of Four Ilerbs Decaction plus ginseng and estraga160
ius root. It can be decocted in water for oral administration. Its functions are to re plenish qi, tonify the blood and command the blond, and it is used for preceded menstruation manifested by profuse, thin and lighr red menses, lassitude of extremities, general debility.
(2) Peach Kernel and Safflower Plus Pour Herbs Decuctiou Qdo hong B rod tong)
SOURCE: ‘l’he Golden Mirror of Medicine
It is composed of Pour Herbs Decoction plus peach kernel ond safflower. All herbs are deeoeted in water for oral administration. It has functions of nourishing the blood, activating blood flow and removing stasis, and is used for preceded mensrruariun with symptoms of profuse, sticky and purple colored menses or with clot of blood, distending pain in the abdomen, etc.
Note: Shengyu Decucriun and Puur Herbs Decuctiun with Peach Kernel and Safflower both are derived from Pour herbs Decoction. The former containing as tragalus root strengthens effects to replenish qi and command the 11100(1. The latter containing peach kernel and safflower increases effects of promoting blood cir eulation and removing stasis.
Chinese Angelica Blood-Tonifying Decoetion
thIng gui bü xue (dug
SOURCE: Differentiation on Indigenous and Exogenous Diseases
Astragalus rout 30g
Chinese Angeliea 6g
DIRECTIONS: Decoct the herbs in water for oral udnuoistrutiun.
EFFECTS: Replenishing qi and engendering the blood.
INDICATIONS: Syndrome of internal injury due to over exertion manifested by fever with flushed face, extreme Burst and desire fur drinking, surging pulse. It is also used for menorrhagia, postpartum fever due to blood deficiency with heed ache of unhealing abscess.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a representative formula for tonifying ni and engendering the blood. Based on the hypothesis of that “The visible blood u rigiaates from the invisible c1i”, astragelus root is used fur tunifying qi of the spleen and lung, protecting the surface of human body so as to prevent qi cal lapse. It also invigorates the middle jiau to aid the source of growth and traasfor mation, which means “Yin grows while yang germinates”, and obtains the result
of replenishing qi to promote blood formotion. Thus it is considered to he a principal herb. Chioese angelica root as en assistant herb •for nourishing blood and bar monizing the nutrient qi molces qi attach to the blood. When qi is in rich, the blood will germinate, deficiency heat will disappear.
As to fever with headache due to irregular menstruation, of postpartum blood deficiency, this formula is token to replenish r1i, and noorish the hlood to eliminate fever. For unhealing abscess, it is used for strengthening the genuine-qi, expelling poison and promoting granulation.
Back to the Spleen Decoction
gui p1 Mug
SOURCE: Life Preserving Formulae
Bighead atractylodes rhizome 12g
Paria with hostwood l2g
Astragalus rout 15g
Lnngan arid 9g
Wild jujuha seed(stir fried, shell removed) 12g
Ginseng 5g
Aucklandia root 6g
Roasted licorice root 5g
(‘hineae angelica root log
Pulygula rout(honey parched) 6g
DIRECTiONS: Decuct all the herbs with the addition of fresh ginger 5 pieces and one red date in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Replenishing qi and tonifying the bland, invigorating the spleen and nourishing the heart.
(1) Weakness of both the spleen and heart caused by deficiency af qi and blood due to overthinking and worries, marked by palpitation or severe palpita tiun, amnesia, insomnia, nightsweata, deficiency heat, poor appetite, general debility, sallow complexion, pale tongue with thin and wlutiah coating, thready and moderate pulse.
(2) Syndrome of failure of the spleen to control the blood manifested by me trorrhagia,metrnataxis, preceded menstruation, profuse bland loss in light color, or continuous dripping of menstruation of hemafecia, etc.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common formula far impairment of the heart and spleeo. It stresses on replenishing qi to promote the blood formation. Astragalus root and ginseng as the prineipal herhs reinforce the middle, benefit qi and promote the generation of the blood. Wild jojuha seed, loogao end, Chinese angelica all tooify the blood, harmonize the nutrient-mu, noorish the heart and tranquilize the mind, and they are assistant herbs. Bighead atractylodes rhizome and aneklandia strengthen the spleen and regulate qi to avoid the stagnation of mji
na with hostwood and polygala root harmonize the heart and kidney, tranquilize the mind fresh ginger and red date strengthen the spleen and harmonize the stom ach,and all these herbs are adjuvant herbs. Roasted licorice root is a dispatcher herh with effect of replenishing qi, harmonizing the middle and mediation all of herbs.
This formula is often used for deficiency of both the heart and spleen as seen in such cases as neurosis, bleeding of gastric and dundenal ulcer, uterine bleeding, thrombopoenic porpura and plastic anemia, etc.
Roasted Licorice Decocton
zhi gdn cáo tang
SOURCE: Treatise on Cold-Attack
Roasted licorice root l2g
Fresh ginger 9g
Ginseng Sg
Dried rebmannia root 30g
Cinnamon twig 9g
Donkey-hide geletion Gg
Ophiopogon root 9g
Hemp seed 9g
Chinese date log
DIRECTIONS: Decoct all the other herbs except donkey-hide gelation in the formula in water for a fixed period of time, then decoction is strained and mixed with lOml or rice wine. Melt Donkey-hide gelation separately in boiling water, then it is divided into three protions and one portion is mixed with 1/3 of the decoction just before taking. Take three times a day.
EFFECTS: Nourishing yin, replenishing qi and tunifying blood to restore pulse.

(1) Deficiency of both qi and blood marked by irregoler intermittent polse or knotted poise, palpitation, emaciation, shortness of breath, pallor, pale tongue with less salive.
(2) Intermittent fever of deficiency type manifested by dry coogh, or coogh with little expectoration of bloody spotom, emaciation, shortness of breath, insom nis doe to vexation, spontaneous perspiration, night sweat, dry month and throat, difficult defecation, scanty, yellow urination and feeble and rapid pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common formola fur deficiency of both qi and blood marked by irregolar or knotted pulse and palpitatian. Roasted licorice root as a principal herb with sweet flavor and warm property has effects of replen ishiog qi, relieving cootraclion to nourish the heart. Ginseng and Chinese date in— vigorates the spleen and stomach to enrich the source of growth and transforma tion. Dried rehmannia root nourishes yin and the blood; Donkey hide gelatin tnro fies the blood and moistenes dryness; Ophiogogon root nourishes yin to clear the lung; hemp seed nourishes yin and moisturizes dryness; Combination of these four herbs are capable of heoefitiug heart qi, nourishing heart blood and heart-yin end they are assistant herbs in this formula. Cinnamon twig, fresh ginger and rice wine are taken as the adjuvant herbs with the effects of activating yang qi, warming meridians and restoring pulse to prevent the strong flavored herbs from causing stagnation of qi.
If this formula is used for dryness of the lung doe to yin impairment, the do sos of fresh ginger, cinnamon twig and rice wine should he decreased in order to prevent the warm herbs from consuming yin—fluid.
Section 3 Formulae for ‘j’onjfyjng both Qi and Blood
These formulae are used for deficiency syndrome of both qi and blood manifested by dizziness, palpitatian, shortoess of breath, fatigue, pallor, pale tongue with thin white coating, a thready arid feeble with forceless pulse. Ginseng astrag— abs root, bighead atractylodes rhizome are commonly used to tanify qi. Prepared rhizome of rehniaonia, Chinese aogelica root, white peoay, and donkey hide gelatin are used to tonify the blood. These two kinds of herbs are taken as main part to constitute the formula. For details of usage and cambioatiao, please, counsel the formriula fur tonifying qi and tonifying blood. The representative formulae are Eight Treasures Decaction, Taishan Rock Powder, etc.

Eight Treasures Decoction
ha then tang
SOURCE: Key to Classification of Troumatism
Chinese angelico root(mixed with rice wioe) lOg
Chuanxiong rhizome 5g
White peooy lOg
Prepared rhizome of rehmaoriia(rnixed with rice wine) 12g
Ginseog 6g
Bighead arraetylodes rhizome lOg
Poria log
Licorice root 5g
DIRECTIONS: All the above herbs added fresh ginger 6g and 2 Chinese (late are decoeted in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Replenishing qi and the blood
INDICATIONS: Deficiency of 1)0th qi and the blood marked by pallur,or sal- low complexion, dizziness, lassitude, shortness of breath, tired to talk, palpitation, poor appetite, pale tongue with thin white coating, thready and feeble poIse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common formula for deficiency syndrome of both qi and the blood. It is composed of Poor Gentlemen Decoction and Four herbs Deeucrion plus fresh ginger and Chinese date. Ginseng and prepared rhizome of rehniannia are the principal herbs with the effects of replenishing qi and nourishing the blood. Bighead atractylodes rhizome and poria strengthen the spleen and dry dampness, Chinese angelica root and white peony replenish the blood and harmonize nutrient—qi, all of them are assistant herbs. Choanxiang rh:zome activates blood circulation and regulates qi, fresh ginger and Chinese date harmnnize the spleen and stomach, they are the ad] ovant herbs. Licorice root is the dispatcher herb for replenishing qi, harmonizing the middle :nid regulating all herbs.
(I) Ten Strong Tunic Herbs DeeoctionOshI qudo dO 00 tOng)
SOURCE; Formulae of Peaceful Benevuleot Dispensary
It is composed of Eight Treasures Deeoetion plus aatragahs root and cinna mon bark. All herbs are deeueted iu water for oral administration. Its effects are to replenish qi and tonify the blood. It is indicated for deficiency syndromes of naen
and women caused by five kinds uf consumption and seven kinds uf impairment due to chronic diseases manifested by loss of appetite, hot sensation in the five centers or sometimes tidal fever, eramping pain, sallow complexion, insomnia, seminal emission, weakness of legs.
(2) Ginseng Nutrition Deeoetionfrfn s/ten yang rong tang)
SOURCE: Formulae of Peaceful Benevolent Dispensary.
This formula is Ten Strong Tonic Ilerbs Deeoetion minus Chuenxiong rhizo nrc hot plus schisandra fruit, tangerine peel, polygala root, fresh ginger and Chi nesc date, and is decocted in water for oral administration. Its effects are to re plenish qi and tonify the blood, nourish the heart and tranquilize the mind. It is used for consumptive syndrome marked by heaviuess of extrensities, oche and weakness in moseles, shortness of breath, panting on exertion, tense in the lower ehdomen, tense and pairs in the hack and waist, palpitation, dryness in the lips and throat, loss of appetite, emaciation. It is also used for deficiency of both the long and large intestine marked by cough, diarrhea, panting, shortness of breath, vomi ting with sputum.
Note: Both Ten strong Tonic Herbs Decoction and Ginseng Nutrition Decoc tion are derived from Eight Treasures Decoetion. The former possesses the effects of replenishing qi and blood with warm herbs, while the latter, stresses on replenishing qi, tonifying the blood, nourishing the heart and tranquilizing the mind.
Taishan Rock Powder
tâi than pan ,chI can
SOURCE: Jingyoe’s Complete Works
Ginseng 3’-5g
Astragalos root 15g
Chinese angelicat root 9g
Dipsacus root 6g
Seotellaria root 6g
Bighead atractylorles rluzome 9g
Chuenxiong rhizone 5g
White peony root 6g
Prepared rehmonnia root 9g
Amomom fruit 5g
Roasted licorice root 5g
Glutinous rice 5g
DIRECTIONS: Decoct all above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Replenishing qi. strengthening the spleen and nourishing the blood to soothe fetus.
INDICATIONS Continual foetal perturbation doe to deficiency of both qi and the blood marked by pallor, lassitude, loss of appetite, pale tongue with thin white coating, forceless floating end rolling pulse of deep and weak pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: ‘F his formula is Ten Strong Tonic Herbs Decoc tinn minus cinnamon hark, poria,bot plus dipsocus root, scotellaria amonlum fruit and glutinous rice. Because dipsacos is pungent in flavor and hot in property, it is able to warm and drive blood circulation. Poria has effects of dioresis and excreting dampness. Both of them arc harmful to fetus, thus omitted.
Of all the ingredients, ginseng, astragalos root, bighead atractylodes rhizotne and licorice invigorate the middle and replenish qi; prepared rchmannia root, Chinese angelicn root, white peony root and dipsacus root, tonify the essence and blood, nourish the liver and kidney to enrich the Chong and Ren Meridians and to protect the fetus; scutelloria clears heat to soothe fetus, amomum fruit regulates qi to soothe fetus; combination of chuanxiong rhizome and herbs to tonify the blond has effect of regulating the vital energy within the blood; glutinous rice nourishes the spleen and stomach. Thus, this formula is effective for replenishing qi, strengthening the spleen, nourishing the liver and kidney, cnrichinng Chong aod Ren Meridians to soothe fetus.
Section 4 Formulae for Tonifying Yin
These formulae are used mainly for syndrome of yin deficiency of the liver and kidney. The liver stores the blood, controls the tendons, while the kidney stores the essence, dominates the bones. The essence and blood can engender from each other, and the liver and kidney share the common source. Dcliciency of the liver and kidney is usually centered on two aspects:’fhc first i insufficiency of the essence and blood due to impairment of genuine-yin caused by chronic diseaseb and ovcrstroin with symptoms of eniaciaton, vertigo, tinnitus, amnesia, insomnia, weakness and soreness in the waist and kness, red tongue with little coting, anc thready and weak poIse. The therapy of nourishing the liver and kidney is needed. The common herbs are dry rehmannia root, prepared rchmaiioia root, wulfberr3 fruit, fleece flower root, dogwood fruit, Chinese Yam, lucid asparagus root, ophio
pogon root, glehnia root, etc. , which have the effect of nourishing yin. Another one is internal disturbance of deficiency fire due to failure of yin to control yang caused hy yin deficiency of tho liver and kidney manifested hy tidal fever, night sweat, red lips, hectic cheek, dry mouth and throat, sputum with bloody, insomnia due to deficient verxation, weakness and soreness in waist and knees, emission, yellow urine, dry stool, red tongue with little coating, a thready and rapid pulse, etc. The therapy of nourishing yin to lower the fire is indicated. On the basis of o sing herbs for nourishing yin, anemarrhena rhizome and phellodendron hark carl be added to reduce deficiency fire, and combine with oyster shell, tortoise plastron to sattle yang.
Because yin tonic is sticky and greasy in property and might hinder qi roechanism, it often combines with poria, oriental water plantain rlnzome, tangerine poll, amomorn fruit, etc. to invigorate the spleen qi and excrete dampness. The kidney is considered to be a residence for water and fire, and genuine yin and genuine yang have their roots in each other. The therapy of “treating yin within yang” should be used. Therefore, when tonifying yin, antler, cynomorium, psoralea fruit, dodder seed, etc. can be ridded to strengthen yang, benefit the essence and invigorate the tendons and bones, If yin deficiency of the liver arid kidney leads to stagna tion of liver-wood, sichnan chinaberry, Chinese angclica root can he added to nourish the blood and soothe the liver. If impairment of the liver and kidney creates the essence and blood fail to transmit to the eyes marked by dryness sensation in the eyes, poor vision, chrysanthemum flower, cassia seed, celosia seed, tribulus fruit, etc. can be added to dispel wind and bright the eyes. If flaring fire due to yin defi ciency burns the collatcrals of lung with symptoms of dry throat, spotom with blood, bitter apricot kernel, stemona root, fritillary bulb, and aristolochia fruit etc. can he used to clear heat, resolve phlegm, moisten the long and alleviate congh. The representative formnlae are Rehrnannia Bolos of Six Herbs, Major Yin-Replenishing Pills arid Yiguan Dccoction.
Rehmannia Bolus with Six Herbs
ha wet dl huCng wan
SOURCE: Key to Therapeutics of Children’s Diseases
Prepared rhizome of rehnionnia 24g
Dogwood fruit 12g
Dried Chinese Yam 12g
Oriental waler plantain 9g
Poria 12g
Moutan bank 9g
DIRECTIONS: Grind tile berbs into fine powder and mix with honey to make boluses as big as the seed of Chinese paresoi for oral administration. 1 ake 6 ‘- 9 grams each time with warm boiled water, 3 times a day. The herbs can also be deeneted in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Nourishing and enriching kidney yin.
INDICATIONS: Deficient syndrome of kidney-yin with symptoms of weak ness end tireness in waist end legs, vertigo, tinnitus, deafness, night sweat seminal enaissinn as well as indiselnore of fnntariel in children. Or, the flaring up of defi cieucy fire leading to oymptoms such as bone-steaming, hectic fever, feverish sen satinn in the palms and soles, or consumptive thirst, or toothache doe to deficiency fire, dry month and throat, red tongue with little coating,and ihrw dy and tapid poise.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: It is a representative formula to tonify the kidney-yin. Prepared rhizome of rehmannia as the principal herb possesses the effect of nourishing the kidney yin and supplementing the essence to engender the hinod. Dogwood fruit with sour flavor and warm property is used for nourishing the kidney, replenishing the liver, and astringing semen to prevent emissiun. Chinese yam with sweet flnvor and neutral prnperty replenishes the spleen yin. So these three herbs create “three tonification” which are nourishing the liver blood, replenishing the spleen-yin, tunifying the kidney-yin. However, prepared rhizume of rehmannia is sweet in flavor and warm in property and is sticky and greasy iii nature. Dogwood fruit is sour in flavor and warm in property and is able to aid the liver—fire. Chinese yam is astringent in flavor. All of them have their own specific characters. They need to combine with ndjuvant herbs. Oriental water plantain combines with prepared rhizome of rehmanina iii clearing the kidney and excreting the turbid evils to prevent the sticky; Ivloutan bark combines with dogwood fruit to cool and purge liver fire; Poria together with Chinese yam excrete the spleen danspness. They are dispatcher herbs, known as “ three porgation” . In Sam, this formula shows that the herbs work as both tonics and porgatives, soppiement each other, that reducing method is contained within tonifying method, and is considered to he mild tonifying formula with sweet and tasteless flavor.
This formula is used for chrome riephritis, palnlouary tuhercninsis, optic nan
ntis, central retinitis, diabetes, Addisons syndrome, hyperthyroidisni, hyperten sion, annvalatary dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and inanition syndrome in infant that pertain to deficiency of the kidney—yin.
(4) Anenarrhena, Phellodendron and Rehmarinia Pills (dii Mi di hudag roan)
SOURCE:It also is known as Pills of Fight Herbs Including Anemarrhena, Phellodendran in the Golden Mirror of Medicine.
It is comprised of Rehmania Bolos with Six Herbs plus Anemarrhea 6g and phellodendron 6g. The direction is similar to that or Rehmania Bolos with Six Ilerbs. Its effect is nourishing yin to lower the fire. It is indicated to flaming up of fire doe to yin deficiency with symptoms of hectic fever including hone steaming, deficient vexation, night sweat, pain and soreness in waist and spine, seminal emission, etc.
(2) Qi Receiving Pills(du qi roan)
SOURCE: Responsibility of Medicine
This is Rehmania Bolus with Six Herbs plus Schisandra fruit 6g and is called Qi-Receiving Pills. The direction is similar to that of Rehmania Bolos with Six Herbs. Its effect is nourishing the kidney to receive qi, and is indicated for deficiency of kidney-yin with asthma, cough, shortness of breath, hiceop, etc.
(3) Ophinpogon, Sehisandra and Rehmania Pills (mM rod di hudng roan) (Its original name is Eight Immnrtal Longevity Pills.)
SOURCE: Medical Rank.
This is Rehmania Bolos with Six Herbs plus Ophiopogon root 9g, schisandra froit 6g. Its direction is similar to ihat of Rohmania Bolus with Six Herbs. It has effects of astringing the long to consolidate the kidney, and is osed far yin defi ciency of the long and kidney manifested by cough, asthma, hectic fever, night sweat, etc.
(4) Wolfberry, Chrysanthemum and Rehmania Pills (qi iii di homing romia)
SOURCE: Medical Rank.
Walfbenry fruit and chrysanthemum flower are added to Rehmania Bolos with Six Herbs and is called Wolfberry, Chrysanthemom and Rehmania Pills. Its direction is same as that of Rehmania Bolos with Six Herbs. It replenishes the kidney and noorishes the livet, and is indicated for yin deficiency of the liver and kidney marked by blurring of vision, poor eyesigth, or dry sensation in the eyes,
epiphora induced by wind.
Notes: Anemarrhena, Phellodendron and Rehmania Pills, Qi Receiving Pills, Ophiopgon,Schisandra and Rehmania Pills, and Wolfberry, Chrysanthemum and Rehmania Pills are all denver from Rebmania Bolus with Six Herbss, and possess effect of replenishing the kidoey yin. The differences among them are as follows:
The first one increases the effect of clearing the ministerial fire; The second lays stress on receiving qi to alleviate asthma; I’he third has effect of astringing the lung to cease cough, and the last one strengthens the effect of nourishing the liver to clear the vision.
Major Yin-Replenishing Pills
dâ bd yin wan
SOURCE: Ilanxi’s Experiential Therapies
Phellodeneron bark( parched) 120g
A.ncmarrhena rhizomc(Moeerated in rice wine and then parched) flOg
Prepared rhizome of rehmannia(steamad in rice wine) 180g
Tortuise Plastron(backed with honey to crispy) 180g
DIRECTIONS: Grind the four ingredients into fine powder, make bolus of the powder with the paste of steamed spinal cord of pig and honey. Each hnlus weights 9 grams, one bolos is taken each time with warm boiled, water or slightly salty water, twice a day. Or the herbs of the original recipe can he dccocted in water for ural administration with the dosage in proportional to that of the bolus.
EFFECTS: Nourishing yin and lowering the fire.
INDICKI1ONS: Syndrome of flaming up of deficiency fire due to yin deficien cy of the liver and kidney manifested by hectic fever, night sweat, seminal emission, cough hcmnptysis, irritability, hut and sore knees and feet with flaccidity, red tongue with little coating, rapid and forceful pulse in chi region.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: it is a common formula that nourishes yin to lower the fire. This formula is created by and basing on Zhu Danxi’s theory that ‘Yang is usually abundant, while yin insufficient”. With large dosage, prepared rhizome of rehmannia is taken to nourish genuine yin; 1ortoise plastron enriches water to cnntrol the fire. These two ingredients work as the principal hcrbs.Phel Indendron hark with hitter flavor and cold property, invignratcs yin and purges the ministerial ‘fire; Aneinarrhena rhizome nourishes the kidney, moistcns dryness, clears the lung and purges the fire. When they are used together, they will lower
the fire to avoid consumption of yin, and ore considered to be the assistant herbs. As excipicots, the spinal cords of pig and honey both possess sweet and moist property and not only tonify the esseoce, bul are able to restrict the overdryness and bitterness of the first two herbs in the recipe, and they are adjavant and dis— patcher hcrbs. The combination of all the herbs attains the result of nourishing yin to lower the fire.
This formula can be used for hypcrthyroidism, renal tuberculosis, hone tuber culosis and diabetes that pertain to syndrome of flaming op of fire due to yin defi ciency.
Bone-Strengthening Pills
hàqiãn wan
SOURCE: Danxi ‘s Experiential Therapies
Phellodendron bark(Macerated in rice wine and then parched) ibOg
Tortoise plastron(Macerated in rice wine and then fried) l2Og
Anemarrhena rhizome(Macernted in rice wine and parched) bOg
Prepared rhizome of rchmaunia bOg
Tangerine peel 60g
White penny root 60g
Cynomorium 45g
Tiger hnne(fried) bOg
Dry ginger 15g
IMRECTIONS: Grind the herbs into fine powder and mix with honey to make into boloses, weighing 9 grams. One bolos is taken each time with warm boiled water or sligthly salty water, twice a day. Or, the herbs can be dccoctcd in water for oral administration with the dnsage reduced in proportionally.
EFFECTS: Nourishing yin to lower the fire and strengthening lendons and bones.
iNDICATIONS: Syndrome of endogenous heat due to yin deficiency caused by insufficiency of the liver and kidney with symptoms of weakness and soreness of waist and knees, flaccidity of extremities, emaciation of the legs and feet, diffi colty in walking, red tongtie with little coating, feeble, thready and rapid pulse.
ANALYSTS OF FORMULS: It is a hasic fnrmola to treat atrophy syndrome due to yin insufficiency of the liver and kidney, and is derived from Major Yin-Re plenishing Pills. The first two herbs are principal herhs.T hey have the effect of
nourishing yin to lower tile fire. The first herb is dominant in dosege in purpose to lower the fire. Anmarrhena rhizome aids phellodendron hark to reduce the fire end clear heat. Prepared rhizome of rehmanllia and white peony rout help tortoise plas tron nourish yin and the blood, replenish the liver and kidney. They are assistant herbs. Tiger hone strengthens the tendons and bones, cyonmorium warms yang and replenishes the essence. Dry ginger and tangerine peel warm the nuddle and regulates qi. All of them are the adjuvant herbs. The combination of all herbs in the recipe attains the result of purging the fire to avoid consumption of yin and tonifying yin without grease. This formula shows that consideration is given to both the “branch” and “root” ,and yin is obtained from yang.
Bone-strengthening Pills recorded in Collection of Formulae with Notes is composed of this formula plus Chinese angelica root, dogwood fruit and beef. It’s effects of replenishing the essence and blood, and strengthening the tendons and bones are stronger than that of this one.
In modern practice this formula is used in poliomyelitis consequence and knee tuberculosis pertaining to yin insuficiency and exacerbation of hot.
Ylguan Decoction
yiguàn jiãn
SOURCE: Liozhou’s Medical Essays
Glehnia root 9g
Ophiopogon root 9g
Chinese angelica root 9g
Dried rehmannia root 30g
Wolfberry fruit 1 2g
Sichuan chinaberry 5g
DIRECTIONS: Decoct all the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Nourishing yin and soothing the liver.
INDICATIONS: Syndrome of qi stagnation due to blood dryness caused by yin deficiency of both the liver and kidney marked by distendiug pain in the chest and obdomen, acid regurgitotion, dry month and throat, red tongue with reduced saliva, thready and feeble, or feeble and taut pulse, hernia, and mass or transient gathering in the abdomen.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common formula for stagnation of the liver due to yin deficiency of the liver and kidney. Being the largest in dosage,
dried rehmannia root is tile priocipal herh used to noorish yin and cieso heat sod it comhines with Chinese angelica root and woifberry froit in tonifying yin, noons— hing the blood, soothing the liver and replenishing the kidney. Glehnia root and ophiopogon root nourish yin to reduce heat, clear the long and soothe the liver, and these four herbs are the assistant herbs. Sichoan chinaherry is hitter in flavor end cold in property, nod is a adjovant herb with effect of soothing the liver-qi. The comhination of all the hcrhs in the recipe not only nourishes the liver, hot soothes and regoates the liver’s function. The consideration is based on theory of “the liver is characterized by its body pertaining to yin with its function to yang”. This is different from aromatic herbs which are used only to soothe the liver and relieve depression.
In modern clinical practice this formola is osed for chronic hepatitis, early stage of cirrhosis, fatty liver, chronic gastritis, gastric oleer, diabetes, hypertension as well as other chronic disorders attributed to yin deficiency of the liver and kidney.
Section 5 Formulae for Tonifying Yang
This kind of formolae is indicated for syndrome of weakness of kidney yang. Kidney yang is the root of yang-qi of the homan body, and possesses the effect of warming the viscera, and is the motive force for fonetional activities of the body. Weakness of kidney-yang oeeors tnostly in cases soeh as over fatigoe chronic ill ness, aging and infirm of deficient yang constitution. When deficient yang fails to warm the body, there appears endogenans cold syndrome marked by pallor, cold limbs, lassitode. The lombos is residence of the kidneys, and insofficiency of kid ney-yang may lead In weakness and soreness in the waist and knees, aversion to cold in the back and waist. The kidney dominates water metabolism and trans formative fonction of qi. lf yang-qi is defieien, transformative fonetion of qi will be abnormal, resolting in difficulty in orination, and edema. Failure of the bladder in control of opening and closing may lead to freqoent orination. The kidney stores the essence and dominates reprodoction, weakness of kidney-yang may resolt in impotence, sterility doe to cold oteros Deficient yang brings aldnnt the cold syn drnme with symptoms of pale tongoe, white tongoe coating, a deep, thready and forceless pulse. The therapy of warming kidney yang is indicated. The commonly osed herbs are cinnamon bark, prepared lateral root of aconite, morinda root, en eommia hark, antler, pilose antler, epiniediom, deserthving eistanehe, etc.
If deficient kidney leeds to difficulty in urinetion, porie, oriental water plan tam rhizome, and plantein seed can be combined to induce diuresis. If dysfunction of the bladder sphincter causes frequent urination or enuresis, hitter eardamon, red raspberry, mantic egg-ease can he used to consolidate the kidney and reduce urine— tion. If uneonsolidation of sperm pass gives rise to seminal emission, spontaneous emission, flaststem milkveteh seed, tribulus fruit, euryale seed, lotus stamen, eher okee ruse hip, sehisandre fruit, etc should he added to consolidate the kidney to astring nocturnal emission. If yang qi is weak, ginseng end estragelus root can be used to replenish qi end engender yang. Since kidney-yin end kidney yang are in terdependent cod inter-transformative, when applying yeng-tonifying herbs, yin tonics such as prepared rehmannie root, bitter eordamnn end wolfberry fruit, are usually used to make the result of “yang growing while yin developing” and “getting yang from yin”. Meanwhile, warm end dry properties of yang tonics can be controlled. The representative formulae are Kidney-Qi Pills end Beck to the Right Decoetion.
Kidney-Qi Bolns(Pills)
shèn ql wan
SOURCE: Synopsis of the Golden Chamber
Dried rehmannia root 240g
Chinese yam 120g
Dowgood fruit 120g
Oriental water plantain 90g
Poria 90g
Mouten hark 90g
Cinnamon twig BOg
Prepared aeonite root(stire baked) 30g
DIRECTiONS: Grind herbs into fine powder end then mix them with honey to make into holuses weighing 9g each. Teka one bolos with warm boiled water, twice a day. Or deeoet the herbs in water, each dosage being correspondingly reduced.
EFFECTS: Warming and tonifying the kidney yang.
INDICATIONS: Insufficiency of the kidney-yang menifested by lumbago end weakness of legs, feeling cold in the lower body, tight of the lower abdomen, dysuna or polyurie, holgy and pale tongue with thin white coating, deep and threedy
Pulse in c/ri region, beriberi, phlegm retention, consomptivee thirst, prolopse of bladder, etc.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: it is a representative formula for insufficiency of the kidney—yang. Of all the ingredients in the recipe, the first herb is the principal herb with the effect of tonifying [lie kidney yin, and the second and third herbs are used to replenish the liver and invigorate the spleen. Prepared aconite rout is pungent and sweet in flavor and hot in property, has the effects of restoring yang, dispelling culd and removing dampness, while cinnamon twig warms the meridians and activates the vessels. These two small dosed herbs are used to slightly engender the fire, which means to promote growth of the kidney qi. Poria excretes dumpheas and strengthens the spleen. Oriental water plantain clears and regulates the water passage. Moutan hark clears the liver-fire. The combination of all herbs results in getting yang from yin, avoiding dryness from warm herbs and greasiness from tonification.
Similarly, the above syndrome in chronic nephritis, ncuro—asthenia, diabetes, hypothyiroidism, chronic bronchial asthma can be rreated with the modified tecipa.
(1) Life Preserving Kirlney-Qi Pillsi sheag shea qi redo.) ,(Original name is Modified Kidney Qi Fills)
SOURCE: Life Preserving Formulae
Prepared rhizome of rehmannia lSg
Bark of Chinese cassia tree 15g
Cyathula rout trg
Chinese yam(parched) 30g
Dowgood fruit 30g
Oriental water plantain 30g
Puns 30g
Moutan bark 30g
Plantain sacd(stcamed in rice wine) 30g
Prepared acunite root(stir-baked at high temperature) l5g
DIRECTIONS: Grind the herbs into very fine powder and then mix them with honey to make into pills as hig as the seed of Chinese parasol for oral admin is[ratiun of 7 pills each time before meal
EFFECTS: Warnung and tonifying the kidney yang, inducing diuresis to reduce edema.
INDICATIONS: insufficiency of the kidney-yang with symptums of tired waist, ankle edema, dysuria.
(2) Ten Tonic I-Icrbs Pills fshi bd wan)
SOURCE: Life Preserving Formulae
Prepared aconite root (stir-baked) 60g
Schisandra fruit 60g
Dowgood fruit 30g
Chinese yam(parched) 30g
Moutan bark 30g
Pilose antler(Remove hair, stcamed in rice wine) 30g
Prepared rhizome of rehmannia(steamed in rice wine) 30g
Cinnamon bark 30g
White pens 30g
Oriental water plantain 30g
DIRECTION.: Grind all herbs intu fine powder then nox with honey to make into pills as big as the seed of Chinese parasol for oral adminisration of 70 pills each time with salty water or rice wine before meal.
EFFECTS: Warming and tonifying the kidney-yang.
INDICATIONS: insufficiency of the kidney-qi manifested by blackish complexion, cold feet, ankle edema, tinnitos and deafness, emaciation, weak and tired waist and kness, dysuria, and back pain.
Backing to the Right Decoction
you gui yin
SOURCE: Jingyuc’s Complete Works
Prepared rhizome of rehmannia 6’--’30g
Chinese yam(parched) 6g
Duwguud fruit 3g
Wolfberry fruit 6g
Roasted licorice root 6g
Eucommia bark(with preparation of fresh ginger) 6g
Cinnamon bark 6g
Prepared aconite root 9g
DIRECTIONS: Decoct all the herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Warnung the kidney and replerushing the essence.
INDICATIONS: Syndrome of deficiency of the kidney-yang manifested by timidity, lassitude, lumbago, abdominal pain, cold limbs, pale tongue with white coating, deep and threody pulse. Or syndrome of exuberant yin repelling yang, or cold syndrome with pseudo heat symptoms.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: It is a common formula to warm the kidney and replenish the essence. In the recipe, prepared rhizome of rehmannia with sweet flavor and warm property, nourishes the kidney-yin, and is the principal herb.Dowgood fruit and wolfberry fruit replenish the liver and nourish the hioud. Chinese yam and roasted licorice root benefit qi and invigorate the spleen. (‘innamon bark and prepared aeonite root warm yang to dispel cold. Eucommia bark has effects of replenishing the liver and kidney and strengthening the tendons and bones. All of them are the assistant and adjuvant herbs. The combination of all herbs in the ree ipe results in warming the kidney and replenishing the essence.
This formula is derived from Gold Chamber Kidney Qi Pills in which pre pared rhizome of rehmannia is used in place of dried rehmannia root and poria, oriental water plantain and moutain are omitted, and wolfberry fruit, eucommon bark and roasted licorice root are added, so it is stronger then Kidney Qi Pills.
Beck to the Right Bolus(Pills) (ydu gel zedn)
SOURCE: Jingyue’s Complete Works
Prepared rhizome of rehmania 240g
Chinese yam(parched) 12CJg
Dowgood fruit(slightly parched) 90g
Wolfberry fruit lightly parched) 120g
Antler glue(parched) 120g
Dondder seed(proeessed) l2Og
Eucommia bark(stire hacking with ginger juice) l20g
Chinese angelica root 90g
Cinnamon bark 6O-42Og
Prepared aconite root 6O’--12Og
DIRECTIONS: The hnluses(pills) are made out of the powdered herbs with
honey. Each bolos weighs 9 grams. One holus is to be taken each time with warm boiled water, twice a day; Or instead, the herbs are decocted in water proportion ately to the dosage of the rccipe.
EFFECTS: Warming and tonifying the kidney-yang, replenishing the essence and blood.
INDICATIONS: Decline of the vital gate fire doe to deficiency nf the kidney- yang marked by intolerance of cold, cold limbs, impotence, seminal emission, or sterility doe to deficient yang, or lonse stools, even diarrhea with ondigested fond, enuresis, weak and tired waist and knees, edema of the lower legs.
In Summary
This chapter consists of seventeen common formolae, which are divided into five kinds of formulae: formulae to tonify qi, formulae to tonify the blood, formolae to tonify both qi and the blood, formulae to toaify yin and formulae to tonify yang. -
1 Form nlae for tonifying qi
Four Gentlemen Decoetion is the basic formula to replenish the spleen and benefit qi. A lot of formulae which replenish qi and strengthen the spleen are derived from this formula. It is characterized by tonifyiog qi, and combination with herbs of strengthening the spleen, and excreting dampness in order to replenish qi, promote transportation and transformation of the spleen, and remove damp ness. It is indicated to qi deficiency of the spleen and stomach. Ginseng, Poria and Bighead Atractylodes Powder is composed of Four Gentleman Deeoction plus some herbs, and it’s effects of strengthening the spleen, excreting dampness, har mnnizing the stomach and regulating qi are much stronger than that of the for mers. Especially, the use of platyeudon root is really marvelous, which not only disperese the lung qi to regulate the upper source of water, but also carries the potency of herbs going upward to tonify the lung-qi, and it is indicated to qi defieien ey of the spleen and stomach accompanied by dampness. Middle-Reinforcing and Qi Benefiting Decoetion stresses on elevatiog yang to raise qi sinking, and is thc representative formula of ‘relieving fever with sweat warm herbs”. Astragalm root is used in large dosage as a principal herb with effects of reinforcing the middle, benefiting qi, and harmonizing of the inside and outside. It has the effect of or protecting the exterior and invigorating the spleen and stomach internally, and also raising the clear qi of the food. Particularly, combinat ion of cimicifuga rhizom and bupleurum root with ginseng and astragalus root is strong elevating yang tc
raise qi sinking. This formula is indicated to ioternal injury of the spleen and stomach, fever due to qi deficiency or siokiog syndrome due to qi deficiency. The main effects of Jade Screen Powder are replenishing qi and consolidating the exterior; By combining with astragalus root and ledebouriella root, it possesses the effect that tonifieation and dispersion complement each other, and it is used for spontaneons sweating due to the exterior deficiency. Pulse-Activating powder replenishes qi, nourishes yin and promotes the generation of hody fluid, so that it is indicated to syndrome of impairment of qi and yin due to heat.
2. Formulae for tonifying the blood
Four Herbs Decoction is the principal formula for tooifying blood. It is taken as main part of herbs that tooify the liver to nourish the blood and replenish the essence to engender the blood. When they combine with herbs for promoting blood circulation and regulating menstruation, the blood is tonified and stagnation is removed. It is indicated to irregular menstruation and dysmenorrhea due to blood deficiency and blood stagnation. Chinese Angelica Blood-Tonifying Decoc finn stresses on replenishing qi to engender the blood. That is why the dosage of astragalos root is five times as much as Chinese angelica. It is used fur fever caused by blood deficiency. Back to the Spleen Decoction is the formula which replenishes qi and nourishes the blood, and is stressed on invigorating the spleen and nourishing the heart. Especially, its combination with aucklandia runt regulates qi and awakes the spleen to get tonifying effect but avoid greasiness. It is applied to deficient syndrome of both the heart and spleen with symptoms of palpitation, in somnia, and failure of the spleen to cnnrtol the blond marked by metrorrhagia and metrosi axis. Roasted Licorice Decoction is composed of herbs of nourishing yin and the blood and herht of replenishing qi and warming yaing. When it combines with rice wine it becomes stronger in enriching qi and the blood, and harmonzing yin and yang, so that it is indicated for insuficiency of the heart-blood and deficiency of the heart-yang manifested by palpitation, irregular intermittent or knotted pulcs, etc.
3. Formulae for tonifying both qi and the blood
Eight Treasures Dccoction is a composite formoal of Four Gentlemen Decoction and Four Herbs Deauction, and it is used for deficient syndrome of both qi and the blood. Taishan Rock Powder is Eight Treasures Dccoction minus peria, in which astragalus root, scutellaria root, amomom fruit and dipsacus root are added, which has the effect of soothing fetus. It equally stresses on both benefiting qi to

invigorate the spleen, and nourishing the blood to soothe fetus, and is used for continual foetal pertubanee, or miscarriage doe to deficiency of both qi and the blood.
4. Formulae for tonifying yin
Rehmannia Bolos with Six Herbs is a representative formula which nourishes yin and replenishes the kidney. It is characterized by combination of “three tonification” and “three purgation”. The whole formula is both tonics and purgatives, and is used for flaming up of deficiency-fire due to insufficiency of the kidney-yin. Major Yin Replenishing Pills and Bone-strengthening Pills are formulae to noar ish yin to purge the fire, and are indicated for syndrome of flaring of fire due to yin deficiency. However, the fanner equally stresses on both nourishing yin and low ering fire, and is used for flaming up of ministerial fire dae to insufficiency of the liver and kidney, the latter with increased dosage of phellodendron bark which clears heat and lowers fire, and combines with herbs for nourishing yin, tonifying the kidney and strengthening the tendons and bones, is used far flaccidity of the legs and feet dne to yin deficiency of the liver and kidaey. Yiguan Deeoetion is used for the liver stagnation due to lack of nourishment of the liver caused by yin deficiency of the liver and kidney. Herbs for nourishing the liver and kidney is taken as dominant, and combine with nourishing herbs to clear the lung in order to clear the metal to soothe the liver. In the formula, sichuan chinaberry is bitter in flavor and cold in property, and is to reduce the liver, regulate qi, soothe the livei and clear heat.
5. Formulae for tonifying yang
Both Kidney-Qi Pills and Back to the Right Deeoetian have effects of war ming and tonifying the kidney-yang, and can be used for deficient syndrome of thE kidney-yang. The farmer is the representative formula to tonify yang. Cinnamor twig and prepared aeonite root in small dosage are used to warm and invigOratE the kidney yang and they are brought into a large herbs for tonifying yin will aims at getting yang from yin and activating qi to promote flow of water. It is usec for weakness of the kidney yang and decline of the vital gate fire. The latter is a pore tonifieation without purgation, and has stronger effects of warming and toni fying the kidney comparing to the former, and can also replenish the essence anc blood. It is indicated to weakness of kidney yang, syndrome of qi decline due to chronic illness.


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