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Part Two Elaboration

Chapter One Exterior Relieving Formulae
The exterior relieving formulae are composed of herbs for relieving the extenor, which have the effects of inducing perspiration, relieving muscles and promo Hog eruption. They are all used to treat the exterior syndromes and pertain to the diaphoretic therapy of the eight therapies.
Inducing perspiration is set up for the exterior excessive syndromes without sweating. It specializes in opening the pore uf sweat duct in order to expel evils by sweating. Relieving muscles is set up for the exterior syndromes with sweating. By means of harmonizing the nutrient and defensive qi, relaxing muscles and strengthening the genuine qi to eliminate the evil-qi, it makes patient sweat slight ly to achieve the treatment goal. Promoting eruption is used to dispel the measles poison with pungent cool herbs so as to make easy for measles eruption. It is usually applied in the early stage of measles with nu eruption or incomplete eroptiun.
The body surface is human exterior defending tissue which is dominated by the lung and the Urinary Bladder Meridian of Foot Taiyang. When the exogenous six climatic evils attack the body surface, there appear the exterior syndromes manifested by chill, fever, headache, stiffness of neck, melagia, floating pulse, sweating or absence of sweat. Because the six climatic evils can be divided into cold and heat, the exterior syndromes have the divisions of exterior cold and exterior heat, too. The patients’ constitution can be partial to yin deficiency, yang deficiency, qi deficiency or blood deficiency, which makes it possible to form the exog enous attack on deficient person. Besides, the exterior relieving formulae can also be used to treat these diseases such as measles, sores, malaria, dysentery, and wind edema at the early stage with the exterior syndromes. When evils are in the exterior, disease condition is usually lighter. So relieving the exterior in time to expel evils can prevent from disease transmission and cure disease early.
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According to Grand Discussion on Yin-Yang Corresponding to Natural Plienoinena in the Plain Questions, when the evil-qi is in skin, it should be dispelled by sweating. Because the exterior syndromes have the types of cold, heat, deficiency and excess, the formulae can be divided into three categories, i. e. formolas for re licving the exterior with pungent warm herbs, formulae for relieving the exterior with pungent cool herbs, and formulae for relieving the exterior by strengthening the genuine qi.
The exterior-relieving formulae should not he deeneted lung, otherwise, the potency of medicine will be consumed and the curative effect will be weakened. Whenever taking exterior-relieving formulae, the patients should avoid wind and cold or add cover to keep body warm for sweating. It is better to make slight sweat all over the body and it is no good to have incomplete sweating or profuse sweating. Because the incomplete sweating cannot expel evils thoroughly while the profuse sweating will lead to consumption of qi end body-fluid, even to death.
If the exterior evil is not dispelled thoroughly, and the interior syndromes ap pear, it needs to consider the method of relieving the exterior first and treating the interior later, or to use the formulae of expelling evils from both the exterior and interior. For these conditions, such as evil entering the interior, full eruption of measles, ulceration of sores, deficient edema and dehydration of vomiting and diarrhea, the exterior relieving formulae are not suitable.
Section 1 Formulae for Relieving the Exterior
with Pungent-Warm Herbs
Pungent warm exterior-relieving formulae are indicated to the exterior syn dromes attacked by exogenous wind and cold. If the patient is physicolly strong, and the exogenous evil is comparatively heavy, the defense-yang will fight against the cold evils in skin and meridians, which is marked by exterior excessive symptoms such as chill, fever, headache, pain of body, absence of sweat thin and white coating, and floating tight pulse. Clinically, the conditions of diseases can he divid ed into lightness and heaviness, however, they all shnold b treated by diophoretie therapy with pungent warm herbs. At the beginning of exterior cold syndromes with lighter symptoms such as slight chill, absence of sweat, and litter floating pulse, it should be chiefly treated with herbs of activating yang to induce perspiration such as spring onion stalk and preserved soybean;For the heavier syndromes, perilia leaf and schizonepeta can be selected to induce perspiration for relieving the
36
exterior; For the heavy syndrome of exterior excess due to cold attack, manifested hy heavier chill, absence of sweat and floating tight pulse, ephedra aad cassia twig can he chosen simultaneously to induce perspiration drastically. if accompanying dampness evil with symptoms of heaviness of head and ache of limbs,it should be chiefly treated with herbs of dispelling cold and removing dampness, such as notopterygium root, pubescent angelica root and ledebouriella root. If snffering from cold in summer, accompanying vonuting and diarrhea, elscholtzia, agastache and eupaturium can be selected as the main herbs to dispel cold and to induce perspiration, eliminate summer—heat and resolve dampness. If the patient is diathetically deficient with insufficiency of defense-yang, attacked heavily by wind evil which leads to disharmony between the nutrient and defensive qi, it will forms the exteri or deficient syndrome characterized by fever, sweating, aversion to wind and floating loose pulse. in this case it should be treated by relieving muscles and exterior, harmonizing the nutrient and defensive qi, such as formolac composed of cassia twig, white peony root and so on.
Owing to the changes of syndromes and the variaties of secondary evils, there osuall appear the corresponding subordinate symptoms and accompanied symp toms,which should be treated by proper adjovant sod dispatcher hcrbs.When the cold evil attacks the Urinary Bladder Meridian of Foot ‘I’aiyang, which leads to restraint of defense-yang and stagnation of qi and blood with headache and stiff neck. For the lighter, headache will disapear following with the elimination of cx tenor cold. But, for the heavier, according to the different parts of headache, different herbs soch as asarnm herb, choanxiong rhizome, dahnrian notopterygium and ligusticum can he selected to expel cold and wind and assuage pain. As far the neck, pueraria should be chosen. Attack of wind and cold on the exterior with closure of the pore of sweat duct and failure of the lung in dispersing and depnrative descending will bring about asthma and cough with expectoration. lfasthma is heavy, bitter apricot kernel, perilla fruit and mob flower can be chosen to lower qi and relieve asthma; If cough is heavy, tatarian aster root, coltsfoot flower and willowleaf swallowwort rhizome can be selected to disperse the long for relieving cough;lf expectoration is abundant, piocllia tuber, tangerine peel, poria, platyc odon root and bitter orange cao be added to resolve phlegm and activate qi; For the internal fluid-retention, dry ginger, pinellia tuber, asarum herb and schisandro fruit should be used to warm the long and resolve fluid-retention; For fidget due to the restrained defense yang transforming into the interior heat, gypsum and
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scutellaria root shoold be cooperated to clear away the interior heat. If it is accompanied by stagnation of the liver and stomach qi, nutgrass flatsedge rhizome aod tangerine peel can be chosen to regulate qi for harmonizing the middle. If the patient has constitutional tendency of qi deficiency, pilose asiabell root and astraga las root is used to replenish qi for relieving the exterior; If the patient is liable to yang deficiency, then adding prepared aconite root and cinnamon bark to replenish yang for relieving the exterior. The representative formulae are Ephedra Deeoe tian, Minor Blue Dragon Deeoetion, Modified Notopterygium Deeoction, Cyperus and Parilla Powder and Cassia Twig Dccoetion.
Spring Onion and Prepared Soybean Decoction
Cong chi Mug
SOURCE: Handbook of Formulae for Emergencies
INGREDIENTS:
Spring onion stalk 5 pes.
Prepared soybean 30g
DIRECTIONS:These two herbs should be deeoeted in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Activating yang to induce perspiration.
INDICATIONS:Tha beginning of exogenous attack with symptoms of chill, fever, absence of sweat, headache, stuffy nose, etc.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a representative formual for treating the light syndrome of exogenous attack of wind and cold. It is pungent flavor and warm nature but without dryness property. Spring onion stalk is the main herb to activate yang aod to relieve muscles and the exterior. As the assistant herb, prepared soybean is to expel the exterior evil with the pungent and sweet flavors. The cooperation of spring onion stalk and prepared soybean shows the moderate property which avoids the disadvantage of injuring body-fluid due to over sweating.
ASSOCIATED FORMULAE:
(1) Seven Herbs Decoetion Including Spring Onion (cong Mi qz wèi yin) (The Medical Secrets of an Official)
Spring onion stalk 9g, pueraria root 9g, prepared soybean 6g, fresh ginger Gg, ophiopogon root 9g, rehmannia root 9g.
The above herbs should be deeoeted in water for oral use. It is to nourish blood for relieving the exterior. So it is suitable to wind and cold attack with blood insufficiency due to deficiency during the convalescence or blood lose such as he
38
matemesis, hemafacia, hemoptysis arid epistaxis, manifested by headache, fever, slight chill and ahsence of sweat.
(2) Spring Onion, Prepared Snybean and Platyeodon Decoction (cong c/u f if gfng tang) , (Revised Popular Treatise an Cold Attack):
Spring onion stalk 3 to 5 pea. platycodon root 5g, capejasmirie fruit Gg, pre pared soybean 9g, peppermint 4g, forsythia fruit 6g, licorice 2g, fresh lophatherum
3g.
The above herbs should be deeneted in water for oral use. It is ta dispel wind for relieving the exterior and to clear away the lung heat. So it is applied to the he- ginning of wind warm syndrome marked by headache, fever, slight chill or aver sion to wind, cough, sore throat, redness of tip of tongue with thin and while coat ing,floating rapid pulse.
NOTES: Bath the Seven Herbs Decoetion Inch ding Spring Onion and the Spring Onion, Prepared Soybean and Platycodon Decoction are the modified furmulae of spring Onion and Prepared Soybean Defoetion. The former mainly cooperates with herbs for nourishing yin and is usually applied to the cases nf yin defi ciency with exterior cold syndrume, while the latter usually cooperates with herbs for clearing away heat to form the pungent-cool exterior relieving formula which is applied to the beginning of wind warm syndrome. It embodies the flexibility of herb combination in formulae.
Notopterygium Decoction with Nine Herbs
fiü wet qtãng huC tUng
SOURCE:Craated by Zhang Yuansu, quoted from the book Medical Problems
INGREDIENTS:
Nutopterygium root 5g
Ledebouriella root 5g
Atraetylodes rhizome 5g
Asarum herb 1 g
Choanxiong rhizome 3g
Dahurian angeliea root 3g
Rehmannia rout 3g
Scutellaria root3g
Licorice 3g
DIRECTIONS:All the above herbs should be decocted in water fur ural ad ministratiun.
39
EFFECTS: Inducing perspiration to repel dampness and clear away the interi or heat.
INDICATIONS:Fxogeooos attack of wind, cold and dampness evils manifested by chill, fever, absence of sweat, pain of limbs, oral bitter feeling with slighi thirst.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common formula for treating the sea sonal exogenous attack pertaining to exterior syndrome caused by wind, cold and dampness evils. With pungent and bitter flavors and warm nature, notopterygium root acts as the main herb on the Taiyang Meridian for dispelling the exterior wind and dampness and soothing the joints. So it is the key herb for relieving wind, cold and dampness evils in the exterior. Ledebooriclla root with its pungent and sweet flavers and warm nature acts on the Taiyang Mendian to expel wind and dampness moderately. Atractylodes rhizome with its biller flavor and warm natore con dry dampness and strengthen spleen as well as indoce perspiration to expel the exterior dampness. Both of them act as the assistafit herbs. Choaoxiong rhizome, asarum herb and dahorian aogelica root can expel wind and cold to relieve headache of all meridians. Rehmannia root and scutellaria root can clear away the accumulation of internal heat and prevent consumption of body fluid caosed by herbs with warm and dry properties. Besides, in the book Collection of Formulae with Notes, fresh ginger and spring onion stalk arc added to this formula to assist the effect of indocing perspiration for relieving the exterior. They all ml as the adovant herbs. As the dispatcher herb, licorice is to harmonize all the components.
Clinically, now this formula with modifications is effectively applied to inflo eoza and rheomatic arthritis with the above mentiooed symptoms.
Cyperus and Perilla Powder
Xidng
san
SOURCE: Formulae of Peaceful Benevolent Dispensary
INGREDIENTS:
Notgrass flatsedge rhizome 2tlg
Perilla leaf 20g
Tangerine peel 60g
Roasted licorice 30g
DIRECTIONS:Criodiog the above herbs into roogh powder and each time dccocting 9 gram in water for oral administration. If the above herbs arc ground into fine powdcr,6 gram is enoogh.
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EFFECT:Regulatiog qi to relieve the exterior.
INDICATIONS: Exogenous attack of wind and cold with internal stagnation of qi marked by chill, fever, headache, absence of sweat, stuffiness and fullness of chest and epigastrium, poor appetite, thin and white coating.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a representative formola for regulating qi to relieve the exterior. Perilla leaf has pungent flavor and warm nature. It is the main herb to relieve the exterior and regulate qi for harmonizing the middle. With pungent and bitter flavors and warm nature, acting as the assistant herb, nutgrass flatsedge rhizome is the key herb for soothing the liver c1i to relieve stagnation. Being similar in nature to notgrass flavsedge rlizome, tangerine peel regulates qi to strengthen spleen and dry dampness for harmonizing stomach, acting as the adjo vent herb. Licence is the dispatcher herb tu harmonize all components of the formula.
In the present clinic, this formula is often used to treat influenza of gastroin testinel type pertaining to the exogenous attack of wind and cold with qi stagnation.
ASSOCiATED FORMULAE:
(1) Modified Cyperus and Perillo Powder (ja vièi riang so san) (Understandings of Medicine)
Penile leaf 5g, tangerine peel 5g, ootgrass flatsedge rhizome 4g, Roasted lico rice root 2. 5g, schizonepeta 3g, large-leaf gentian root 3g, ledehouriella root 3g, chestetree fruit 3g, chuonxiong rhizonie 1. 5g, fresh ginger 3 pea.
The above herbs should be deeoeted in water for oral administration. It in duee perspiration for relieving the exterior, so it is applied to seasonal exogenous attack manifested by headache with stiff neck, stuffy nuse with discharge, pain of body, fever with chill or aversion to wind, absence of sweat, thin and white coat iog, floating pulse.
(2) Ginseng and Perilla Deeoction(chen sü yin) , (Formulae of Peaceful Benevolent Dispensary)
Ginseng 22g, perilla leaf 22g, pueraria root 22g, peucedanum root 22g, pinellia tuber 22g, poria 22g, tangerine peel 15g, licorice 15g, platyeudun root 15g, bitter orange 15g, aucklandia root 15g.
Grinding the above herbs into powder. Each time only 12 gram is decocted in water with seven slices of fresh ginger and one Chinese date for oral use. It is mdi eated to exogenous attack of wind and cold with interior phlegm and fluid-reten41
tion marked by chill, fcvcr, hcadache, stuffy nose.,cougb with abundant expectora tion, cougestion and distress of chest, white coating and feeble pulse.
NOTIfS:The Modified Cyperos and Perilla Powder is just the Cyperus and Perilla Powder plus schizonepeta,large-leaf gentian root, ledebouriella root, chuanxiong rhizome, chastetree fruit and fresh ginger. It is morc powerful to induce perspiration and relieve the exterior. The Ginseng and Perilla Decoction is Cype ms and Perilla Powder plus poria, peucedanum root, pueraria root, platycodon root, bitter orange, aucklandia root and ginseng, but removing nutgrass flatsedgc rhizome. It is mainly to resolve phlegm, activate qi, invigorate qi and relieve the exterior.
Elscholtzia Powder
Xidng ma san
SOURCE:Formulae of Peaceful Benevolent Dispensary
INGREDIENTS:
Elscholtzia I 2g
Hyacinth bean 6g
Magnolia bark 6g
DIRECTIONS:The above herbs should be decoeted in water with litter wine for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Eliminating summer-heat to relieve the exterior and resolve dampness to harmonize the middle.
INDICA’I’IONS: Exogenous attack of cold with internal dampness due to enjoying the cool and taking too much cold drinking in summer manifested by chill, fever, absence of sweat, headache, heaviness of head with tired body, chest distress with nausea, abdominal pain with vomiting and diarrhea, white and greasy coating, floating pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common formula for exogenous attack of cold and dampness due to enjoying the cool and taking too much cool drinking in summer. Elscholtzia as the main herb with aromatic and pungent flavors and slight warm nature can expel the exterior cold and dispel sunimuer-Iceat as well as resolve dampness, so it got the title of ‘ephedra used in summer”. With bitter and pungent flavors and warm nature, magnolia hark warms the middle to dry dampness and activate qi for relieving fullness. It acts as the assistant herb to resolve the dampness and harmonize the middle for relieving vomiting and diarrhea. Hya cinth bean with sweet flavor and neutral nature is the adjuvarit herb to invigorate
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qi, to expel summer-heat and to resolve dampness. Wine can dispel cold and activate blood with its warm natnre, so it is osed as the dispatcher.
Clinically, this formula now is often applied to exogenoos attack in sommer, gastroenteritis, bacillary dysentery with the above-mentioned symptoms.
Ephedra Decoction
nzá hnáng tang
SOURCE:Treatise on Cold Attack
INGREDIENTS:
Ephedra 6g
Cassia twig 4g
Bitter apricot kernel 9g
Roasted licorice 3g
DIRECTIONS: Decoct ephedra first. After removing the floating foam, then put in the other herbs to keep dccocting for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Inducing perspiration to relieve the exterior and dispersing lung to relieve asthma.
INDICATIONS:Exogenous attack of wind and cold manifested by chill, fever, headache, pain of body, absence of sweat but asthma, thin and white coating, floating tight pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: ‘F his is a classic formula fur the exterior excessive syndrome due to attack of cold with strong diaphoretic effect because of its pungent flavor and warm nature. With worm nature for assisting yang to expel cold and pungent flavor for relieving the exterior, ephedra acts as the main herb to disperse the lung for relieving asthma, because it particularly acts on the Lung Meridian, Casaia twig as the assistant herb, with warm nature and sweet flavor can warm meridians and dispell cold as well as activate flow of the nutrient and defensive c1i. Bitter apricot kerncl,with sweet and bitter flavors and warm nature, soothes the lung to lower qi and assist ephedra relieving asthma. Roasted licorice root, as the dispatcher herb, can mitigate the drastic properties of ephedra and cassia twig and harrnnnize all the components.
This is a pungent-warm exterior relieving formula, so that it is not suitable for the exierior ayndrome due to wind-heat. Besides, in Treatise on Cold-Attack, it is prohibited in sufferers of sores, atranguria, epistaxis and blond lose, spontane nus sweating due to exterior deficiency, slow pulse on the “chi” portion due to blood deficiency, heaviness of body with palpitation due in erroneous purgation, e
43
yen though there is the exterior syndrome. Because the sweat, hlood, body-fluid and liquid and c1i are homagenaus substances of same source. If diaphoretic thera py is applied to the above mentioned conditions the genuine qi will be injured.
In the present clinic, this formula is commonly applied to exogenous attack, influenza, chronic bronchitis and brunchial asthma pertaining to the exterior ax cessive syndrome due to wind and cold.
ASSOCIATED FORMULAE:
(1) Major Blue Dragon Decuction fda qzag long tang) , (Treatise on Cold Attack)
Ephedra 12g, cassia twig 4g, Roasted licorice 5g, bitter apricot kernel 6g, gypsum 12g,fresh ginger9g,Chinesc date 3 pcs.
Decoct ephedra first. After getting rid of rhe floating foam, put in the other herbs. The decoction should be taken warmly in a mug to have slight sweating. If sweating is abundant, puff the warm powder on body surface. it induce perspira(ion to relieve the exterior and clear away heat for relieving fidget. indications: cx ugenuus attack uf wind and cold marked by both heavy fever and chill, pain of body, absence of sweat but fidget, floating tight pulse.
NOTES: The indication uf Major Blue Dragon Decoction is characterized by absence of sweat due to blockage of the skin orifices by the severe cold attack and fidget due to stagnation of the defense yang transforming into interior heat. So, on the basis of Ephedra Decuction, the dosage of ephedra is doubled to strengthen diaphoretic effect for relieving the exterior, gypsum is added to clear away the inte nor heat, double dosage of licorice with fresh ginger and Chinese date can mitigate the drastic diaphoretic effect of cphedra and cassia twig and harmonize the nutrient and defensive qi to nourishing the source of sweat. It is the strongest formula for inducing perspiration. So, it should he cautious to apply in clinic in order to prevent from over sweating.
The “warm powder” in this formula is the warm powder formula recorded in The Essential Formulae Worth A Thonsaud Gold for Emergency, i. a. calcined dragon’s bone and oyster shellf9g). astragalus root(9g) and round-grained rice (30g). The powder of the above herbs is wrapped in cloth of thin silk which is dusted gently on skin In stop sweating.
(2) Atractylodes plus Ephedra Decoction find hudagjid zhd tang) ,(Synnp sis of the Golden Chamber):
It is just the Ephedra Decoction plus 9 gram of bighead atraciylodes. It in14
doces perspiration for expelling cold and dampness and relieving the exterior. So it is suitable to sofferer of dampness attack marked by irritating pain of body.
(3) Ephedra, Apricot, Coix sod licorice Decoction md ring yl gao tong) (Synopsis of the Golden Chamber):
Ephedra 6g, bitter apricot kernel lOg, Roasted licorice 5g, eoix seed 15g.
The above herbs should he decocted in water for oral ose. It has the effect of relieving the exterior and expelling dampness. Indications: Wind dampness syn drome manifested by pain of body and fever aggravated in the afternoon.
Minor Blue Dragon Decoction
xiào qing lông fling
SOURCE: Treatise on Cold-Attack
INGREDIENTS:
Ephedra 9g
Cassia twig 6g
White peony root 9g
Asarum herb 3g
Dry ginger 3g
Roasted licorice 6g
Pinellia tober 9g
Schizandra froit 3g
DIRECTIONS: Deeoct ephedra first. After getting rid of the floating foam, pot in the other herbs.
EFFECTS : Relieving the exterior and resolve fluid-retention to alleviate cough and asthma,
INDICATIONS:Attaek of wind and cold on the exterior with internal floid retention manifested by chill, fever, absence of sweat, asthma and cough with a boodant thin expectoration, or cough due to floid retention accompanied by difficulty in lying position, or heaviness and pain of body with edema of face and limbs, white and slippery coating, floating polse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common forniula for expelling cold to relieve the exterior ond warming long to resolve fluid-retention. As the main herb, ephedra is to induce perspiration for relieving the exterior, to disperse the long for relieving asthma, and to excretes water for alleviating edema. Being pon gent and sweet flavors and warm nature, cassia twig acts as the assistant herb to help ephadra relieve the exterior as well as warming yang to promote the trans45
formative function of qi. According to the principle that “diseases pertaining to fluid-retention should he treated with warm natured herbs” , dry ginger warms the spleen and lung; pincllia tuber dries dampness, resolves phlegm and lowers the turbidness; both asarum herb and schizandra fruit strengthen the effect of warming the lung and resolving fluid retention and can prevent consuming the lung qi for relieving cough and asthma; white peony root cooperates cassia twig to harmonize the nutrient and defensive qi and cooperates schizandra fruit to prevent over- dispersing of ephedra and cassia twig. All the five herbs act as adjuvans. As the dispatcher herb, Roasted licorice harmonizes all the components.
In the present clinic, this formula is commonly applied to bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, senile emphysema, and acute attack of chronic bronchitis due to external cold with internal fluid-retention.
Cassia Twig Decoetion
gal zhf Mug
SOURCE: Treatise on Cold-Attack
INGREDIENTS:
Cassia twig 9g
White peony root 9g
Roasted licorice 6g
Fresh ginger 9g
Chinese date 3 pcs.
DIRECTIONS: The above herbs should he decocted in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Relicving muscles and the exterior, harmonizing the nutrient and defensive qi.
INDICATIONS: Exogenous attack of wind and cold manifested by headache, fever, sweating, aversion to wind stuffy nose, retching, absence of thirst, White coating, floating louse or floating feeble pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a representative formula for treating the exterior deficient syndrome due to exogenous attack of wind and cold. Being pun gent and sweet flavors and warm nature, acting on the Urinary Bladder Meridian, cessia twig is the main herb to reinforce the defensive qi and octivate the nutrient qi for expelling the exterior wind-cold evil. With sour and bitter flavors and slight cold nnture, white peony root sctt as the assistant herb to nourish the nutrient qi and astringe yin. The cooperation between cassia twig and white peony root is to
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harmonize the nutrient and defensive qi by means of dispersing arid astringing simultaneously. Fresh ginger as an adjovant herb assists cassia twig in expelling the exterior evils. Chinese date helps white peony root harmonize the nutrient blood. Fresh ginger end Chinese date together can also assist cessie twig and white peony root in harmonizing the nutrient and defensive qi. Roasted licorice acts as the dispatcher herb to harmonize all the components, besides, it can reinforce yang to relieve muscles by cooperating with cassie twig as well as nourishing yin to harmonize the nutrient qi by cooperating with white peony root.
This formula specially harmonize the nutrient and defensive qi and strengthen the genuine to expel evils, so it is different from the other diaphoretic formulae. In addition to the ‘exterior deficient syndrome due to wind and cold, it can also he ap plied to miscellaneous internal diseases, rehabilitation of illness or delivery manifested by symptoms of disharmony between the nutrient and defensive qi such as fever, sweating, aversion to wind, floating loose pulse. However, it cannot be ap plied to exterior excessiveness without sweating, or exterior cold with internal heat marked by absence of sweat but fidget, or the beginning of warm diseases manifested by fever, thirst, sore throat, floating rapid poIse. If it is applied errone ously to syndromes pertaining to exuberant heat, epistaxis will happen sometimes.
In the present clinic, this formula is usally applied to various skin diseases such as eczema, urticaria, polymorphic erythema, prurigo and chilblain.
ASSOCIATED FORMULAE:
(1) Poeraria plus Cassia Twig Decoction(guI zht jia gé gën tdag) , (Treatise on Cold-Attack):
Pueraria rout 12g,cassie twig 6g,white peony root 6g,fresh ginger 9g,Ruest- ed licorice root 6g,Chinese date 3 pcs.
All the above herbs should he decocted in water for oral use. It relieves muscles and the exterior, moistens vessels and relaxes tendons and is applied to Taiy ang diseases with symptoms of tight neck and back, sweating end aversion to wind.
(2) Magnolia and Apricot Kernel plus Cassia Twig Decoction (gui zht jia hoe p0 xing zf tang) , (Treatise on Cold Attack)
Cassie twig 9g,Roasted licorice 6g,fresh ginger 9g,wlute peony root 9g,Chi nose date 3 pcs. ,magnolia bark 6g, hitter apricot kernel 9g.
The above herbs should be decocted in water for oral use. It has the effects of
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relieving muscles and the exterior, lowering qi to relieve asthma, so it is suitable to the chronic asthma with attack of wind-cold and symptoms indicated by Cassia Twig Decoction, nr the cases as the exterior syndrome of wind cold is erroneously porged, the exterior syndrome is not relieved hot mild asthma appears.
NOTES: Both Pueraria plus Cossia Twig Decoction and Magnolia and Apricot Kernel plus Cassia Twig Decoction are modified from Cassia Twig Decoction. They all can be applied to the exterior deficient syndrome due to wind cold. Paer aria plus Cassia Twig Decuctian is used for tight neck and back due to the meridian qi of Taiyang failing to distribute body fluid, so puerariu root is added to relieve muscles and the exterior as well as promoting production of body fluid for relic ving tendons. While Magnolia and Apricot Kernel plus Cassia Twig Decoction is to treat the remaining of exterior deficient syndrome with asthma, magnolia hark, and bitter apricot kernel are added to lower qi for relieving asthma.
(3) Cassia Twig plus Cossia Twig Dccoction (gui a/mi jia gui tang) , (Treatise on (‘old Attack)
On the basis of Cassia Twig Decoction additional 6 gram of cassia twig is added. It is used to relieve the exterior and muscles as well as lowering the rebel lious qi. Indications: After erroneous use of moxibustion or over-sweating, there appear symptoms such as paroxysmal gas pushing up to chest from the lower abdomen with epigestric throb, shortness of breath and restlessness.
(4) Peony plus Cassia Twig Decoction(gui zhi i/a shdo ydo taog) , (Treatise on Cold-Attack)
On the basis of Cassia Twig Decoction additional 9 gram of white peony root is added. It has the effects of relieving the exterior and harmonizing the interior. Indications: After purgation is erroneously applied to Taiyang diseases, the evil qi sinks in the Taiyin Meridian marked by abdominal distention and episodic ahdonu nal pain with staying of exterior syndrome.
NOTES:Both Cassia Twig plus (‘assis Twig Decoction and Peony plus Cassia Twig Decuction are based on Cassia Twig Decoction with certain additional herbs. With 6 grants additional cassia twig to Cassia Twig Decoction, the formula can not only expel the exogenous cold bat also lower the rebellious qi, so it is used to treat the running piggy syndrome. The purpose of doubling the dosage of white peony root in Peony plus Cassia Twig Decoction is to relieve spasm and pain.
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Section 2 Formulae for Relieving the Exterior
with PungentCool Herbs
Pungent-cool exterior-relieving formulae are suitable to exterior heat syndromes doe to exogenous attack of wind-heat or warm dryness. Warm pertains to yang evil and is easy to injure the lung through mouth and nose. When the defen sive qi fights against the warm and heat evils, the exuberant yang leads to fever. Sweating and thirst are the manifestations of body fluid injury due to exuberant heat. Asthma, cough and sure throat are caused by the exuberant lung heat. Therefore, it should be treated with pungent-cool exteriur-relieving therapy. Fur the general syndrome of wind heat aaacking on the Lung Meridian manifested by slight fever, thirst and cough, mulberry leaf, chrysanthemum flower and peppermint could be chosen as the main herbs to dispel wind-heat and to disperse the lung for relieving cough. If the evil qi is heavier marked by obvious fever, thirst and sore throat, redness of tongue tip, the emphasis should he laid on both relieving the exterior and clearing away heat. So honeysuckle flower, forsythia fruit and aretium fruit can be chosen to clear away heat end poison. To expel heat from muscles and to clear away causing skin eruption, bupleurum root, pueraria root, cimieifuga rhizome and Chinese tamnrisk tops could be chosen as the main herbs. If the exuberant lung-heat results in severe asthma with sweating or without sweating, then, gypsum and ephedra can be used together es the main herbs to clear the lung for relieving asthma.
If attack of wind heat on the lung involves throat manifested by swelling sure throat, then, puff-hell, belamennde rhixome, isatis root and subprostrate sophora root could be added to clear away heat and resolve swelling. If exuberant heat consumes body flnid with symptoms of thirst and vexation, then, reed rhizome, trieho— senthes root and bamboo leaf could be cooperated to clear away heat and promote production of body fluid. For the exterior heat syndrome due to stasis of the defensive qi marked by absence of sweet or less sweating, schizonepeta and prepared soybean can be used together to open the interstitial space and circulate the defen sive qi. If being complicated with the interior heat, then gypsum, anemarrhena rhizome, scutellaria root and eapcjnsmine fruit could he added to clear away heat and fire. For tile beginning of measles with severe heat-poison in the bloud phase, red peony root, mnutnn bark and purple gromwell root could be added to clear away heat poison, to cool blood and to dissipate stasis. For the constitutional deficiency
49
of yin arid blood complicated by the exterior heat syndrome, rehmannia root, ophiopogon root, white peony root, swallowwart root and eogongrass rhizoroe can he osed together to nourish yio and blood and to cooi blood in order to prevent from injury of yin when relieving the exterior. The representative formulae are Mulberry and Chrysanthemum Deenetion, Honeysuckle and Forsythia Powder, and Ephedra, Apricot, Licorice and Gypsum Decoet inn, etc.
Mulberry and Chrysanthemum Decoction
sãngjá fin
SOURCE: Differentiation un Warm Diseases ltem by Item
INGREDIENTS:
Mulberry leaf 7. 5g
Chrysanthemum flower 3g
Biller apricot kernel 6g
Forsythia fruit 5g
Peppermint 2. 5g
Platycodon root fig
Licorice 2. 5g
Seed rhizome fig
DIRECTIONS: Decdct the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Expelling wind-heat and dispersing the lung to relieve cough.
INDICATIONS:The beginning of wind-warm syndrume manifested by cough, mild fever and thirst.
ANALYSIS OF. FORMULA: This is a light formula of exterior relieving with pungent-eonl herbs. Being hitter and sweet flavors and cold nature, mulberry leaf. expels evil and clear the lung to relieve cough. With sweet and bitter flavors and slight cold nature chrysanthemum flower dispels wind and puison. They act canr dinately as the main herbs by inter reinfnrcement. Forsythia fruit and peppermint are ihe assistant herbs to dispel wind-heat and relieve the exterior. As the adju vant herbs, bitter apricot kernel and platycodon root disperse the lung for relic ving cough by eombinatiun uf ascending and descending, seed rhizome clears heat and promote production of body fluid for assuaging thirst. Licorice acts as the dis patcher herb. By cooperating with platycudon root, it can also soothe the throat. Modifications far complicated conditions: adding gypsum and anemarrhena rhizo me fur husky breath like asthma due to dryness evil in the qi phase; adding seutellana root for the exuberant lung heat; and adding triehosanthes root far heavy
59
thirst.
Honeysuckle and Forsythia Powder
yin qido são
SOURCE: Differentiation on Warm Diseases Item by item
INGREDIENTS:
Forsythia fruit 9g
honeysuckle flower 9g
Platycodon root fig
Peppermint 6g
Bamboo leaf 4g
Licorice 5g
Schizonepeta 5g
Prepared soybean 5g
Arctium fruit 9g
DIRECTIOINS:Deeoet the above herbs in water with fresh reed rhizome for o rat administration.
EFFECTS: Expelling exterior evils by its pungent coolness herbs, clearing heat gnd poison.
INDICATONS:The beginning of warm diseases manifested by fever, absence of sweat or iocomplete sweating, headache, thirst, cough, sore thro’t, redness of tongue tip with thin and white or yellow coating, floating rapid pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a moderate pungent-cool formula. As the main herbs, honeysuckle flower and forsythia fruit have the effects of expelling wind-heat by their pungent flavor and cool nature and clearing turbidness and poison by the aromatic property. There ore two groups of assistant herbs. One is pep permiot and arctium fruit for expelling wind-heat and soothing throat. The other is schizonepeta and prepared soybean. Both are pungent flavor and warm nature, can expel the exterior evils, and can be applied to conditions of sweating or ah sence of sweat. As the adjuvant herbs, bamboo leaf and reed rhizome can clear heat and promote production of body fluid for relieving thirst, platycodon root lifts the lung qi soul soothes throat for relieving cough. Licorice acts as the dispatcher herb to harmonize all the components. By cooperating with platycodon root, it can also soothe throat and expel phlegm.
The same herbs of forsythia fruit, peppermint, platycodon root, licorice and reed rhizome are used in both Honeysuckle and Forsythia Powder and Mulberry
51
and Chrysanthemum Decoction. In Honeysuckle and Forsythia Powder, honey suckle flnwer, bamboo leaf, schizonepeta, prepared soybean and arctium fruit are added to disperse wind fur relieving the exterior and to clear away beat for detoxicating. While in Mulberry and Chrysanthemum Decuction, mulberry leaf, chrysan themum flower and bitter apricot kernel are used to expel wind-heat and to disperse the lung for relieving cough.
In the present clinic, Honeysuckle and Forsythia Powder is commonly applied to influenza, acute tonsillitis, and the beginning of encephalitis B, epidemic menigitis, mumps with the above-mentioned symptoms.
ASSOCIATED FORMULA:
Honeysuckle and Forsythia Decaction lyIa qido tang), (Differentiation on Warm Diseases Item by Item)
Honeysuckle flower lSg, forsythia fruit 9g, bamboo leaf 6g, licorice root 3g, ophiopogon root 12g, rehmannia rout 12g.
The above herbs should be decocted in water for oral administration. Effecis:
nourishing yin and relieving the exterior. It is applied to warm diseases related to Yangming Meridian marked by absence of sweat after purgation, floating pulse.
NOTES: In this formula, only honeysuckle flower, forsythia fruit, bamboo leaf and licorice are used to expel wind and clear away heat for relieving the exterior, so the power of relieving the exterior is far weaker than that of Huneysuckle and Forsythia Puwder. Because injury of yin due to erroneous purgation results in failure to expel evil, ophiapogon rout and rehmannia mel are added to nourish yin and promote production of body fluid for expelling thcexterior evil by sweating.
Ephedra, Apricot, Licoricc and Gypsum Decoction
tad Jzudng xIng rén gãn cáo shI flo tang
SOURCE:Treatise on Cold-Attack
INGREDIENTS:
Ephedra 6g
• Bitter apricot kernel 9g
Roasted licorice Gg
Gypsum 18g
DIRECTIONS: Decuct ephedra first. After removing the foam, put in the other herbs to decoct continuously for oral administration.
EFFECTS: Expelling evil by its pungent-coolness herbs and clearing the lung for relieving asthma.
• 52
INDICATIONS: Exogenous attack of wind cvii manifested by persistent fever, cough with dyspnca or nares flaring, thirst, sweating or ahseuce of swcat, thin and white or yellow coating, slippery rapid pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA:This is a heavy pungent cool formula for clearing away the lung heat. Being pungent and sweet flavors and extremely cold nature, gypsum as the main herb acts on the Lung and Stomach Meridians tn clear heat and promote production of body fluid. Ephedra is the assistant herb to disperse the lung fur relieving asthma and expel the exterior evil. In clinic, for asthma with sweating, gypsum should be five times dosage ephedra, but for asthma without sweating, gypsum should be three times of dosage ephedra. In a word, dosage of pungent cold herb must be larger than that of pungent-warm herb, and then it is possible to form the pungent-cool formula. As the adjuvant herb, bitter apricot kernel is to assist ephedra in strengthening power of lowering qi to relieve asth ma. Licorice rout acts as the dispatcher herb to harmonize all components of the formula.
This formula is commonly applied to acute bronchitis and pneumonia due to exuberance of the lung-heat.
Bupleurum and Pueraria Decoction for Relieving Muscles
châi gé jiè ii tang
SOURCE:Six Banks an Cold Attack
INGREDIENTS:
Bupleurum root 6g
Pueraria rout 9g
Licorice rout 3g
Scatellaria rant 6g
Natupterygium root 3g
Dahurian angelica root 3g
White penny root 6g
Platyeadun runt 3g
DIRECTIONS: Deenet the abuve herbs in water with three slices of fresh ginger and twa pieces of Chinese date(ar five grams of gypsum) fur oral administra tinn
EFFECTS:Relieving muscles and clearing heat.
INDICATLONS:Restrained exogenous wind cold transforming into heat manifested by gradual decrease of chill and gradual increase of fever, absence of sweat,
53
headache, aching limbs, pain of eyes and orbit, dryness of nasal cavity, vexation with insomnia, floating and slight surging pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This formula is mainly used in the diseases of Yangming Meridian. As the main herbs, pueraria root with its pungent and sweet flavors and neutral nature, acting on the exterior of Yeugoung Meridian, relieves muscles and expels beet; bupleurum root, with bitter flavor end neutral nature, re lieves the exterior (or abating fever. As the assistant herbs, dahurian angeliea root sets on the Yangming Meridian to treat forehead pain;nutopterygium root acts on the Taiyang Meridian to relieve the exterior and dispel cold; the combination of seutellaria rout and gypsum clear the interiur heat of the Yaogmiog Meridian. As the adjuvaot herbs,the cooperation of white peony rout and licorice root with sour and sweet flavors for producing yin, prevent over sweating; platyeodon rout can disperse the lung-qi fresh ginger and Chinese date can harmonize the nutrient and defensive qi as well as the middle. licorice root is the dispatcher herb to harmo nize all eurupuuents of the formula. Modifications: removing seutellaria root and adding ephedra for severe chill without sweating; adding ephedra in wiuter and springp;iu summer, adding penile leaf ins;ead of ephedra.
Cimicifuga and Pueraria Decoction
Sheng ma gé gën tang
SOURCE:Yan’s Treatise oo Pediatric Formulae
INGREDIENTS:
Cimicifuge rhizome 3g
Pueraria rout 3g
Red peony root 3g
Roasted licorice 3g
DIRECTIONS:Deeuet the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Relieving muscles and promoting eruplion.
INDICA1iONS:The begieuirig of measles marked by absence of rashes or with incomplete eruption, fever end headache.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA:As the main herbs, eimicifuga rhizome, with pungent and sweet flavors and cool nature, acting on the lung and stomaeh,is good at relieving rouscles aud promoting eruption as well as eleering away heat to relieve the exterior; puerenie rout, with pungent and sweet flavors and neutral nature, act ing an the stomach, is to relieve muscles end in promote eruption as well as to promote production of body fluid for quenching thirst. The combination of these
54
two herbs can expel the measles poisnn through skin and interstitial space. Red peony root acts as the adjuvant herb to cool blood and to dissipate stasis. As the dispatcher herb, licorice root can harmonize all components of the formula and tonify qi to relieve the exterior.
ASSOCIATED FORMULA:
Poison-Dispelling and Exterior Relieving Decoction (iaoo do fa bido tang) (Peaceful Records of Smallpox and Rash)
Cimicifuga rhizome Sg, pueraria root 3g, peucedanum rout 5g, bitter apricot kernel 6g, platycodon rout 3g, bitter orange 3g, schizonepeta 3g, ledebouriella root 3g, peppermint .Sg, akebia stem 3g, forsythia fruit 3g, arctiuni fruit 5g, lo phatherum 2g, licorice root 2g.
The above herbs should be decocted in waler for oral administration. Effects:
relieving the exterior fnr promoting eruption, soothing throat for relieving cough. Indications: early stage of measles marked by incomplete eruption.
NOTES:This formula is composed of ,Cimicifuga and Pueraria Decoction by removing red peony rout and adding of other herbs. Schizonepeta, ledebooriella root, arctium fruit and peppermint relieve muscles and promote eruption. Bitter orange, platycodon root, bitter apricot kernel and peucedonom rout resolve phlegm for relieving cough. Forsyihia fruit and lophatherum can clear heat to relieve fidget. Akebia stem induces heat downwards. So ibis formula is stronger in dispersing the lung, opening the exterior, clearing heat and poison.
Lophatherum, Chinese Tamarisk and Arctium Decoction
zhá ye niü bang tang
SOURCE: Extensive Medical Notes of Xianring zhai
INGREDIENTS:
Chinese tamarisk tops 6g
Schizonapeta 4. 5g
Pucraria root 4. 5g
Cicada slough 3g
Papperrriint Sg
Arctiom fruit 4. 5g
Anemarrhena rhizome 3g
Scropholaria root 6g
Licorice root 3g
Ophiopogon root 9g
55
Lophatherum 1. 5g
(For the severe case, adding 15 gram of gypsum)
D11{EC’I’IONS:Deeoet the above herbs in water for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Promoting eruption and relieving the exterior, clearing away heat from the lung and stomach.
INDICATIONS: Measles with incomplete eruption accompanied by asthma, cough, fidget and restlessness, swelling sure throat.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA:Being sweet flavor and cool nature, acting on the lung and stomach, Chinese tomarisk tops is the key herb fur promoting eruption; lophotberum clears the upper jiao to relieve vexation; aretium fruit expels wind- heat, promotes eruption and clears away poison. They all act as the main herbs. As the assistant herbs, poeraria root, cicada slough and peppermint can dispel wind heat and promote eruption. Anemarrhena rhizome, scrophularia root arid ophiopugon root act as the arljuvant herbs to clear away heat and promote production of body fluid. As the dispatcher herb, licorice root harmonizes all the components and clears away poison.
The dosage of Chinese tamarisk tops should not he too large because it is a powerful diaphoretic herbs. It cannot he used in eases of full eruption.
Section 3 Formulae for Relieving the Exterior
by Strengthening the Genuine
The genuine-strengthening and exterior relieving formuae are applied to con stitutional deficiency with the exterior syndrome due to attack of exogenous evils. They are commonly composed of herbs for strengthening the genuine such as pi lose asiabell root, fragrant solomonsael fhizome and prepared aconite lateral root and herbs for relieving the exterior such as ouloplerygium root, ephedra, hupleuruin root, peppermint, spring onion stalk end prepared soybean. The representative formulae are Antiphlogistic Powder, and Modified Fragrant Solomonsael Decoctioo.
Antiphiogistie Powder
bdidü são
SOURCE:lKey to Pediatric Therapeutics
INC REDIEISTS:
Bupleurum root 30g
56
Peucedanum root 30g
C’hoanxiong rhizome 30g
Bitter orange 30g
Notopterygium root 30g
Pubescent angeliea root 30g
Poria 30g
Platycodon root 30g
Ginseng 30g
Licorice root 15g
DIRECTIOINS:Grind the above herbs into powder. Decoet 6 gram of the powder each time in water with fresh ginger and peppermint for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Dispelling wind and dampness to relieve the exterior by sweating.
INDICATIONS: Exogenous attack of wind, cold and dampness manifested by severe chill with sthenic fever, headache with stiff neck, aching of limbs, absence of sweat, stuffy nose with heavy nasal sound, cough with expectoration, fullness and distress of chest, white and greasy coating, floating soft pulse or floating rapid pulse but feeble in deep touch.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: This is a common formula for strengthening ihe genuine and relieving the exterior. Notopterygium root and pubescent angeliea root act as the main herbs to dispel wind and dampness for relieving the exterior and pain as well as clearing meridians of all the body. Bupleururn root and pepper mint can expel evils and relieve muscles; ehuanxiong rhizome activates blood for expelling wind. They act as the assistant herbs. As the adjuvant herbs, platycodon root and bitter orange can soothe the chest and activate qi with functions of both ascending and descending; peucedanum root disperses the lung for expelling phlegm ; poria and fresh ginger can strengthen the spleen to resolve phlegm; ginseng strengthens the genuine qi for expelling wind, cold and dampness evils through sweating. Licorice root acts as the dispatcher herb to harmonize all the components aud to tonify qi for harmonizing the middle.
This formula is originally set for infants. Because of insufficiency of the primordial qi in infants, small dosage of ginseng is used to invigorate it. Afterwards, it was effectively used for eases of senile patient, postpartum or constitutional de fieieney with the exterior syndrome caused by exogeoous wind, cold and dampness evils. It was also applied by Yu jiayau, a famous physician in Qing Dynasty, to treating the beginning of dysentery with the exterior syndrome. The medicinal
.57.
property of this forniola is mild warm and dryness, so it cannot be applied to the exterior syndrome not doe to exogenous attack of wind, cold and dampness evils.
ASSOCIATED FORMULAE:
(I) Schizonepeta and Ledebouriella Antiphlogistic Powder (jing fang bdi dd san.) , (Wonderful Formulac for Everyone’s Life Preserving)
Notopterygium root Sg, pubescent angelica root 5g, bopleurum root 5g, peoccdanum root 5g, bitter orange 5g, poria 5g, schizonepeta 5g, Iedebouriella root 5g, platycodon root 5g, choanxiong rhizome 5g, licorice root 3g.
The above herbs shoold be dccocted in watcr for oral use. Effccts: inducing perspiration to relieve the exterior and sores. Indications: the beginning of sores manifested by local swelling pain, chill, fever, absence of sweat, thirst, thin and white coating, floating rapid pulse.
(2) Canglin Powder (Gang flog são) , (Formolae for Universal Relief):.
Ginseng, poria, licorice, peucedanom root, ehuanxiong rhizome, notoptcrygium root, pubescent angeliea root, platycodon root, bitter orange, bupleorum root, long-stored rice, fresh ginget and peppermint(with equal dosage respectively)
The above herbs should be decocted in water for oral ose. It is vigorous tonify qi to relieve the exterior, clear poison and stop vomiting, indications: anoreetie dysentery with fever and vomiting
NOTES: Sehizonepeta and Ledebouriella Powder is a modification of Anti- phlogistic Powder by removing ginseng, ginger and peppermint and adding schi zonepeta and ledebouriella root. In this formula, there is no effects of tonifying qi and strengthening the genuine, but the effect of dispelling wind and cold is strengthened. Thus, Schizonepeta and Ledehouriella Powder is more suitahie for cases with heavy exterior syndrome. Canglin Powder is composed of Antiphlogistic Powder plus long stored rice, it expels dampness and warmness, nourishes the stomaeh-qi without side—effect of stagation, so it can be applied to anorectic dysen tery of stomach-qi deficiency.
Modified Fragrant Soloiuonsael Decoctioa
jiã jián wet rul tUng
SOURCE:Popolar Treatise on Cold-Attack
INGREDIENTS:
Fragrant solomonsael rhizome 9g
Spring onion stalk 6g
Platycodon root 5g
58
Swallowwart root 3g
Prepared soybean 9g
Peppermint 5g
Roasted licorice root 1. 5g
Chinese dare 2 pea.
DIRECTIONS:Dccoct the above herbs io water for oral administration.
EFFECTS:Nnorishing yin to clear away heat and inducing perspiration to rehove the exterior.
INDICATIONS: Constitotional yin deficiency with attack of exogenous evils manifested by headache, fever, slight chill or aversion to wind, absence of sweat, or slight sweating, cough, vexation, thirst with dryness of throat, red tongue and rapid pulse.
ANALYSIS OF FORMULA: Fragrant solomonseal rhizome os the main herb tu noorish yin and moiaten dryness. Spring onion stalk, prepared soybean and pep permint act as the assistant herbs to dispel exogenous evils. As the adjuvont herbs, swalluww art root clears heat; platycodon root disperses the long for resolving phlegm; Chinese date nourishes qi and blood. Roasted licorice root is the dis patcher herb for harmonizing all the components. Thus, it is possible to induce perspiration without injoring yin hot nourishing yin without remaining of evils.
In Summary
There are totally 15 common furml]lae for relieving the exterior. Based on their different effects, they are divided into three categories, i. e. formulae fur re lieving the exterior with pungent warm herbs, formulae for relieving the exterior with pungent cool herbs and formulae for relieving the exterior by strengthening the genuine—cu.
1 Formulae for relieving the exterior with pungent-warm herbs
Spring Onion end Prepared Soybean Decoction, with moderate power uf indu cing perspiration, hes the effect of activating yang to relieve the exterior but without the disadvantage of injuring body fluid due to over sweating, so it is the light formula for relieving the exterior with pungent warm herbs and is suitable to th€ light case of exogenous attack of wind and cold. Notoptcrygiuni Decoction witk Nine Herbs, Cyperus and PenIle Powder, and Elscholtzia Powder are the comparatively strong of inducing perspiration. Notopterygium Decoction with Nine Herbc is suitable to ache of limbs due to exogenous attack of wind, culd and dempnes end the hitter taste feeling with slight thirst due to the internal hcat;Cyperus anc
59
Perilla Powder mainly regulates qi and harmonizes the middle, so it is suitable to the exterior cold syndrome complicated by stagnatiun of the liver and stomach qi which is manifested by stuffiness and distress of cheat and epigastriom; Elscholt zia Powder is suitable to exogenous attack of cold with internal injory of dampness oe to enjoying the cool and taking too much cool drinking in sommer, which is manifested by tired body, abdominal pain with diarrhea and vomiting. The emphasis of this formula is laid on both expelling cold to relieve the exterior and resol ving dampness to harmonize the middle. Both Ephedra Decoction end Minor Bloc Dragon Decoction are mainly composed of ephedra and cassia twig. Ephedre Decoction is the strongest eftect on indocing perspiration. It is suitable to the heavy case of exterior ecessive syndrome doe to exogenous attack of wind end cold. Minor Blue Dragon Decoctino is suitable to exogenous attack of wind cold with internal fluid-retention. Cassia Twig Decoction can relieve muscles and the exterior as well as harmonizing the nutrient and defensiye qi, so it is suitable to the exterior deficient syndrome doe to exogenous attack of wind evil with disharmony between the nutrient and defensive qi. Being different from all the above formulae, Cassia Twig Decoction con also be applied to miscellaneous diseases and cases involving pregnancy and delivery due to disharmony between the nutrient end defensive qi.
2. Formulae for relieviug the exterior with pungent-cool herbs
Mulberry and Chrysanthemum Decoctino a nold formula with pungent cool herbs and mainly to disperse the long for relieving cough, so it is suitable to exog cnous attack of wind heat with lighter exterior syndrome hot heavier cough. Honeysuckle end Forsythia Powder is a moderate formula with pungent cool herbs and can clear away heat and poison, so it is suitable to symptoms such as fever without sweating or with incomplete sweating, thirst, sore throat, redness of tongue tip. Ephedra, Apricot, Licorice and Gypsum Decoctien is a heavy formula with pungent-cool herbs and has the specific effect of clearing away the long heat. It can be applied to fever end asthma either with sweating doe to heat accumulated in the lung or withoot sweating due to heat obstructed in the long, but the key to this is the dosage ratio of gypsum and ephedre. Bupleorom and Poererie Decoction for Relieving Muscles is to relieve moscles as well as clearing away the interior heat, so it is suitable to the restrained exogenous wind cold transforming into heat complicated by the exterior and interior syndrome of Yangming Meridian. Cimicifage and Poeraria Decoction can lift yang sod relieve mosclcs to promote eruption, so it is suitable to measles with incomplete eruption, fever and absence of sweat.
60

lophatherum, Chinese Tamarisk and Arctium Decoct ion can promote eruption as well as clearing the lung and stomach, so it is specially applied to the beginning of measles with incomplete eruption and symptoms of exoherant long and stomach heat.
3. Formulae for relieving the exterior by strengthening the genuine Antiphlogistic Powder is a combination of pangent-cool exterior-relieving
herbs and gingscng. It emphases on both invigorating qi and relieving the exterior, so it is suitable to infants or constitutions1 deficiency with exterior syndrome doe to exogénoos attack of wind, cold and dampness with phlegm. Modified Fragrant Soloroonsael Decoction nourishes yin for relieving the exterior, so it is suit able to constitutional yin deficiency with exterior heat syndrome doe to exogenous attack of wind heat.

 



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